One of the mysteries of the English language finally explained.
1‘Patrick kissed her on the cheek and ruffled her hair’
disarrange, tousle, dishevel, rumple, run one's fingers through, make untidy, tumble, riffle, disorder
mess up, make a mess of, tangle
North American informal muss, muss up
2‘a light wind ruffled the water’
make ripples in, ripple, riffle, roughen
3‘‘Keep calm,’ she told herself, ‘don't let him ruffle you’’
annoy, irritate, irk, vex, nettle, needle, anger, exasperate
disconcert, unnerve, fluster, flurry, agitate, harass, upset, disturb, discomfit, put off, put someone off their stroke, throw off balance, make nervous, discompose, discountenance, cause someone to lose their composure, perturb, unsettle, bother, affect, ruffle someone's feathers, worry, disquiet, trouble, confuse
informal rattle, faze, throw, get to, put into a flap, throw into a tizz, rile, niggle, aggravate, bug, miff, peeve, discombobulate, shake up
British informal wind up, nark, get across
1‘a very full shirt with ruffles down the front’
frill, flounce, ruff, ruche, jabot, furbelow
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