Which Joe gave his name to ‘sloppy joes’? We look at five interesting sandwiches and their lexical origins.
1‘the knights fortified their citadel as a defence against raids’
build defences round, strengthen with defensive works, secure, protect, surround
rare embattle, rampart, mound
2‘such a timber enclosure may have been fortified by a masonry wall’
strengthen, reinforce, toughen, consolidate, bolster, shore up, brace, buttress, stiffen, support, hold up
3‘he fortified himself with a large tot of rum’
invigorate, strengthen, energize, enliven, liven up, animate, vitalize, rejuvenate, restore, revive, refresh
galvanize, dynamize, fire up, rouse, motivate, boost, perk up, stimulate, inspire, pick up, embolden, give courage to, encourage, cheer, hearten, buoy up, reassure, make confident, brace, sustain
informal pep up, buck up, give a shot in the arm to
rare activate, inspirit
add alcohol to, add spirits to, strengthen
5‘breakfast cereals are fortified with vitamins’
add minerals to, add vitamins to, boost, improve
informal beef up
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.
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The definitions of ‘buddy’ and ‘bro’ in the OED have recently been revised. We explore their history and increase in popularity.