Words ending in -sion, -tion, and -cion
These endings are part of many everyday English nouns but people often have problems with their spelling. Here are some guidelines to help you choose the right one:
Words ending in -sion
- If the ending is pronounced as in confusion, then it should be spelled -sion. Here are some examples:
collision; division; revision; persuasion; explosion; decision; seclusion.
- When the ending comes after an -l, it's always spelled -sion:
compulsion; revulsion; expulsion; emulsion; propulsion.
- When the ending follows an -n or -r, it's often spelled -sion, especially if the word is related to one that ends in -d or -se. For example: immersion (from immerse); comprehension (from comprehend). Here are some more examples:
aversion; conversion; apprehension; diversion; extension; version.
- Nouns based on words that end in -ss or -mit always end in -sion: permission comes from permit and discussion comes from discuss. Here are some more examples:
commission; expression; aggression; admission; succession; impression; emission.
Words ending in -tion
- If the ending is pronounced as in station, then it's spelled -tion. For example:
addition; duration; nation; solution; ambition; edition; caution; position.
- If the noun is related to a word ending in -ate, then the ending will be -ation, e.g. donation (from donate) or vacation (from vacate). Here are some more examples:
accommodation; location; creation; rotation; education; mediation.
- If the ending comes after any consonant apart from -l, -n, or -r, then the ending is spelled -tion:
action; connection; reception; affection; interruption; description; collection; infection; deception.
- After -n and -r, the ending can be -tion or -sion. It's more likely to be -tion if the word's related to another one that ends in -t or -tain, e.g. assertion (from assert) or retention (from retain). Here are some more examples:
exertion; distortion; abstention; invention.
Words ending in -cion
There are just two common nouns that end in -cion: suspicion and coercion.
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.