Which Joe gave his name to ‘sloppy joes’? We look at five interesting sandwiches and their lexical origins.
Key to the non-anglicized pronunciation of foreign words
Foreign words and phrases, whether naturalized or not, are always given an anglicized pronunciation. The anglicized pronunciation represents the normal pronunciation used by native speakers of standard English (who may not be speakers of other languages) when using the word in an English context. A foreign pronunciation is also given for words taken from other languages (principally French, Dutch, German, Italian, Russian, and Spanish) where this is appreciably different from the anglicized form and where the other language is familiar to a reasonable number of English speakers.
Where the native form of a foreign place name is given in addition to the anglicized form, only the foreign pronunciation of this form is given, e.g.
Wisła /ˈviswa/ Polish name for Vistula.
Foreign-language transcriptions are based on current national standards. Regional variations have not been given, except in the case of Spanish transcriptions, where both Castilian and American Spanish variants are given (if distinct). Transcriptions are broad, and many symbols, identical to those used for transcribing English, have similar values to those of RP. In a few cases, where there is no English equivalent to a foreign sound, a symbol has been added to the inventory. The additional symbols used to represent foreign pronunciations are given below.
|ç (German)||as in||Ehrlich, gemütlich|
|ɲ (French)|| ||Monseigneur, Auvergne, Daubigny|
|(Spanish)|| ||España, Buñuel|
|ß (Spanish)|| ||Bilbao|
|ɣ (Spanish)|| ||Burgos|
|ʀ French ‘r’|| ||Anvers, Arles|
|r||all other values of ‘r’ in other featured languages||(German) Braunschweig|
| || ||(Italian) Alberti|
| || ||(Russian) Grozny|
| || ||(Spanish) Algeciras, zarzuela|
|Short vowels|| |
|ɐ (German)||as in||Abitur|
|ɑ (Dutch)|| ||Nederland|
|e (French)|| ||abbé|
|o (French)|| ||auberge|
|ɔ (French)|| ||Bonnard|
|œ (French)|| ||Pasteur|
|ø (French)|| ||à deux|
|u (French)|| ||Anjou|
|y (French)|| ||cru|
|ʏ (German)|| ||München|
|j (Irish)|| ||Dáil|
|ɥ (French)|| ||appui|
|Long vowels |
(ː indicates length)
|aː (Dutch)|| ||Den Haag|
|eː (German)|| ||Wehrmach|
|oː (German)|| ||Verboten|
|yː (German)|| ||gemütlich|
|Nasalized vowels |
(~ indicates nasality)
|ã (used for anglicized French pronunciations)|| ||pincette|
|ɒ̃ (used for anglicized French pronunciations)|| ||cordon bleu|
|ɑ̃ (French)|| ||Danton, Lac Leman|
|ɛ̃ (French)|| ||Amiens, Rodin|
|œ̃ (French)|| ||Verdun|
|ɔ̃ (French)|| ||arrondissement|
|Diphthongs|| || |
|aɪ (German)|| ||Gleichschaltung|
Are you looking for a word for a foolish person? We explore twelve interesting words to describe the dunderheads in your life.
Before you run for the hills, let’s run through a list of ‘run’ expressions that are running through our minds.
The definitions of ‘buddy’ and ‘bro’ in the OED have recently been revised. We explore their history and increase in popularity.