Definition of xenobiotic in English:

xenobiotic

adjective

  • Relating to or denoting a substance, typically a synthetic chemical, that is foreign to the body or to an ecological system.

    ‘xenobiotic synthesis’
    • ‘Nevertheless, xenobiotic compounds could be introduced into plants to study transport or flux through a particular metabolic pathway.’
    • ‘A case can also be made for other diverse agents that support xenobiotic detoxification and also, for example, protect against aflatoxin-induced tumors.’
    • ‘In conclusion, it should be emphasized that E. complanata is of value as a freshwater bioindicator of xenobiotic contamination.’
    • ‘One of the effects of flavonoids is the ability to modulate xenobiotic metabolism.’
    • ‘As previously discussed, protocols have been developed for determining single lifecycle responses of mysids to xenobiotic chemicals.’
    • ‘Essentially, glutathione conjugates with xenobiotic compounds are more soluble than the original substrates and thus more easily exported from the cell.’
    • ‘Aldh's are considered to be general detoxifying enzymes that oxidize toxic biogenic and xenobiotic aldehydes (reviewed by YOSHIDA et al. 1998).’
    • ‘One of the important functions of macrophages is to scavenge xenobiotic substances.’
    • ‘Micro-organisms can also degrade a range of toxic xenobiotic compounds (synthetic chemicals, which do not occur naturally) such as herbicides and pesticides.’
    • ‘The paper focuses on genes involved in metabolizing and disposing of xenobiotic chemicals, such as those in the cytochrome P450 gene families.’
    • ‘The cytochromes P450 are a superfamily of haemoproteins that catalyse the oxidation of a number of endogenous and xenobiotic substances.’
    • ‘Individuals who are taurine deficient may become more susceptible to tissue damage by xenobiotic agents such as aldehydes, chlorine, and certain amines.’
    • ‘Literally all the residents of industrialized countries now carry measurable amounts of several xenobiotic pollutants in breast and other tissues.’
    • ‘Our findings suggest new hypotheses and, at the same time, support the simplest picture for a transporter whose job is to remove a wide range of amphipathic xenobiotic compounds from epithelial cells as rapidly as possible.’
    • ‘With this in mind, the inactivation of mycotoxins in the body should parallel aspects of xenobiotic detoxification.’
    • ‘Because of the diverse nature of enzymes mediating xenobiotic oxidation in plants, more than one enzyme system is probably required for triallate sulfoxidation.’
    • ‘The GST and GPOX are involved in multiple functions including reduction of organic peroxides generated either by endogenous or xenobiotic metabolites.’
    • ‘Frölich and Würgler constructed a strain with increased cytochrome P450-dependent xenobiotic metabolism which facilitates the detection of promutagens.’
    • ‘His perspective provides a framework for understanding the impact of xenobiotic substances on development and reproduction.’
    • ‘The diet is not counterbalanced by grains, roots, vegetables, and fruits - foods that are relatively lower in anthropogenic xenobiotic substances.’

noun

usually xenobiotics
  • A xenobiotic substance.

    • ‘The many hundred known forms of cytochrome P450 are notably involved in detoxification of xenobiotics and steroid biosynthesis, but also in adverse reactions such as activation of procarcinogens.’
    • ‘Metabolism of xenobiotics plays an important role in chemical carcinogenesis.’
    • ‘More screenings are needed to examine whether other xenobiotics, particularly those frequently accumulating in crustacean tissues, can also interact with the EcR.’
    • ‘In mussels, the proliferation of peroxisomes has been proposed as a specific biomarker of pollution by xenobiotics in marine and estuarine environments.’
    • ‘Attempts have been made to look into the effects of xenobiotics on enzymatic system responsible for ecdysteroid metabolism.’
    • ‘Witte et al. determined that subtoxic concentrations of membrane-damaging compounds enhanced the cytotoxicity of hydrophilic xenobiotics.’
    • ‘In essence, the multiple mechanisms of potential damage from mycotoxins are not unlike those of many xenobiotics.’
    • ‘The upper part, in contact with the air, can be treated with xenobiotics via a donor chamber.’
    • ‘Weak substrate binding and rapid efflux had been speculated as an important element in P-gp broad substrate specificity and its primary job of not allowing xenobiotics into the cell cytoplasm.’
    • ‘Glutathione conjugation is also the primary mechanism of eliminating electrophilic xenobiotics (some of which are carcinogens) in the liver.’
    • ‘They act in concert with other enzymes to detoxify xenobiotics through conjugation with glutathione to increase water solubility.’
    • ‘The second group, usually soluble proteins, accepts as substrates small organic molecules, such as flavonoids, steroids, and xenobiotics with diverse chemical structures.’
    • ‘Metabolism of xenobiotics by CYP450s usually reduces the toxicity and promotes excretion of these xenobiotics.’
    • ‘The DPPIV enzyme is also highly sensitive to mercury and organophosphate xenobiotics.’
    • ‘Individual variation exists in absorption, metabolism, and excretion rates of xenobiotics.’
    • ‘Moreover, metabolism of certain drugs and xenobiotics also occurs to some extent in all body tissues, but mostly in liver, lung, intestinal tract, kidney, and skin.’
    • ‘Combining ‘sentinel species’ with specific biomarkers provides important biological information on the potential impact of xenobiotics on the health of organisms and ecosystems.’
    • ‘Dietarily, adequate protein and reduced sugar intake ensures proper liver clearance of xenobiotics from the blood.’
    • ‘Reduced sulphur compounds produced by assimilatory sulphate reduction play an important role in many plant responses to various kinds of stress, including oxidative stress, chilling and exposure to heavy metals, and xenobiotics.’
    • ‘It should be useful for scientists involved in developing new assays or in testing phototoxicity effects of various xenobiotics.’

Pronunciation

xenobiotic

/ˌzɛnə(ʊ)bʌɪˈɒtɪk/