The phenomenon in a female mammal whereby the genes in one of the pair of X chromosomes are silenced, with the result that their effects are equivalent to those in the male, with only a single X chromosome.
- ‘In mammals, methylation is required for essential developmental programs including X chromosome inactivation in females and genomic imprinting.’
- ‘One potential factor postulated to influence the fate of duplicated genes is germ-line-specific X chromosome inactivation.’
- ‘While X chromosome inactivation specifically affects genes on the X chromosome, genomic imprinting modifies the activity of a subset of autosomal genes in a parent-of-origin-specific manner.’
- ‘Epigenetic regulation in aging mammals can be quantitatively measured using genes subject to X chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting.’
- ‘In other eukaryotes, intensively studied examples include X chromosome inactivation in mammalian females and the position-effect variegation observed in Drosophila melanogaster.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.