A measure of the number of viral particles present in an organism or environment, especially the number of HIV viruses in the bloodstream.
- ‘Instead of showing lower viral loads, the immune systems of introverted subjects replicated the virus between 10 to 100 times as fast as in other patients.’
- ‘Such undertreatment is of particular concern in children - the main source for the dissemination of influenza within the community, since they usually have higher viral loads than adults and excrete infectious virus for longer periods.’
- ‘The viral load or the amount of nucleic acid present can be tracked over time using a graphical patient report.’
- ‘The viral load measure can read as high as a million, depending on the limits of the lab test.’
- ‘The outcome measures were CD4 + T cell counts, and viral load of the HIV virus in blood.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.