Any of the four collections forming the earliest body of Indian scripture, consisting of the Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda, and Atharva Veda, which codified the ideas and practices of Vedic religion and laid down the basis of classical Hinduism. They were probably composed between 1500 and 700 BC, and contain hymns, philosophy, and guidance on ritual.
- ‘The Sama Veda differs from other Vedas in that it is chanted with some melody.’
- ‘The Samhitas are the most ancient part of the Vedas, consisting of hymns of praise to God.’
- ‘The Vedas are composed in an ancient language of mantra, myth and symbol and utilise a rich poetic and imagistic expression.’
- ‘The Upanishads, a set of deeply philosophical works comprising the final portion of the Veda, place great emphasis on Sun worship.’
- ‘Shankara was a Vedanta scholar, who had mastered the Vedas and the Upanishads at an early age.’
Sanskrit, literally ‘(sacred) knowledge’.
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.