The minimum quantity of energy which is required to remove an electron to infinity from the surface of a given solid, usually a metal.
- ‘The high current density is possible because the p-doped WBG region acts as a negative electron affinity material when in contact with low work function metals.’
- ‘The energy required to remove an electron from the metal is called the work function, which is written as hv (Planck's constant multiplied by the required frequency of light).’
- ‘For the anode, we typically use a thin layer of transparent conductor indium tin oxide, which has a work function around 4.8 eV, deposited on a glass or plastic substrate.’
- ‘When we heard that a filament of platinum - which, like tungsten, is a metal with a high work function - tended to show less positive-ion noise, Sheldon obtained a sample.’
- ‘He assumed that the kinetic energy of the ejected electron was equal to the energy of the incident photon minus the energy required to remove the electron from the material, which is called the work function.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.