Definition of warm in US English:



  • 1Of or at a fairly or comfortably high temperature.

    ‘a warm September evening’
    as complement ‘I walked quickly to keep warm’
    • ‘With relatively little snow and temperatures which are warm enough, runners can avoid excessive indoor track training.’
    • ‘The brown wheat mite will be active in the fall and in the spring until temperatures are consistently warm in late April or May.’
    • ‘The kids in my neighborhood played Kick the Can on warm summer evenings and I did fairly well at that.’
    • ‘The sun remained out for the entire day and it was fairly warm, reaching a temperature of 21 degrees Celsius.’
    • ‘The season was still fairly warm, and he said he needed his kayak (which had been captured with him).’
    • ‘Evening had set and the mid-July air was warm but comfortable.’
    • ‘The warm temperatures and surplus of talented winemakers makes this the most likely platform from which Viognier can launch.’
    • ‘With a week of sunny days, warm temperatures and scattered rains, Nebraska's corn crop is catching up.’
    • ‘During our tests, the heatsink never got scalding hot, so this may not be a priority for some of you, but it does get fairly warm.’
    • ‘Mr Schroder said warm currents and high temperatures were causing the blooms, which may cause skin rashes and eye or ear infections.’
    • ‘The warm sea temperatures have led to dozens of sightings of marine mammals off the Irish coast in recent weeks.’
    • ‘One of the paramedics told the other one to get a blanket for Justin so that his body temperature would stay fairly warm.’
    • ‘The temperature was warm enough to be outside, and there was no rain to deal with.’
    • ‘The rain was sweeping down from a steel-grey sky but the temperature was warm for the time of year.’
    • ‘The area has the desirable combination of cool evening ocean breezes and good summer sun and warm temperatures.’
    • ‘Is somebody at the BBC's pictures desk suffering from over-heating due to the sudden unseasonably warm temperatures?’
    • ‘Families will love both its warm temperatures and warm personalities of the locals.’
    • ‘The sun is shining brightly, the sky is it's own beautiful shade of blue and the day is fairly warm.’
    • ‘The temperature is a warm, but comfortable; 25°C outside and there's not a cloud in the sky.’
    • ‘The weather here is still very warm and very comfortable in the evenings.’
    hot, warming
    balmy, summery, sultry, hot, mild, temperate, pleasant, agreeable
    heated, tepid, lukewarm
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1 (of clothes or coverings) made of a material that helps the body to retain heat; suitable for cold weather.
      ‘a warm winter coat’
      • ‘My clothes are laid out before me as I contemplate the warm coat, my constant companion for the winter.’
      • ‘Hugging the warm clothes, Daphne sits on the bed, dazed at the turn of events.’
      • ‘Kea stood behind Gin as she sorted through her clothes to find a warm jacket.’
      • ‘When they finished their movie on the sixth day and they all left Ella went in the bedroom to change into warm clothes.’
      • ‘He supplied her with food and warm clothes, but that was all he could give.’
      • ‘Other slaves ‘even learned to dye the wool so that we could have warm clothes in the winter’.’
      • ‘Then I hoist myself out of the freezing tub, and the two women wrap me in a thick, warm robe with a hood.’
      • ‘They also are being advised to carry warm clothes, food, water, boots, a torch and a spade.’
      • ‘When chill in the air touches the bone, the body yearns to snuggle into warm clothing.’
      • ‘Some of the women had come to the meeting dressed for a social gathering, not in warm clothes, but we decided that was what we were going to do.’
      • ‘The City petrol vehicle stands parked in one corner, the policemen over stacked with warm clothes play cards in the back seat of the vehicle.’
      • ‘Jorenae slipped out of bed and padded across the floor to the fireplace, examining the warm clothes.’
      • ‘I have fed this guy on many occasions and also given him a warm jacket during winter.’
      • ‘I get up, pull on warm clothes, and make my way slowly back to my hummock.’
      • ‘We knew what we needed: sleeping bags, warm clothes, a raincoat, food, and money.’
      • ‘But this time Reed told the guard to forget the gag and to give her warm clothes.’
      • ‘He always wears warm clothes, sometimes a cape or an overcoat on top, a waistcoat underneath, perhaps a scarf draped over the shoulders, a felt hat.’
      • ‘Winter visits will require the addition of warm clothing, rain-proof jackets and an umbrella.’
      • ‘Ben left the blankets on the back of the sofa while he followed Hoss upstairs to gather his own warm clothes from his bedroom.’
      • ‘The dark blue sweater was still warm from Jim's body heat and felt good against the night's chill.’
      thick, chunky, thermal, winter, woolly
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    2. 1.2 (of a soil) quick to absorb heat or retaining heat.
      • ‘Mulching once the soil is warm is very useful in conserving soil moisture.’
      • ‘Marigolds are easy to grow from seed and sprout in a few days in warm soil.’
      • ‘Chaetomium strumarium is a fungus common in warm soil and on plant debris.’
      • ‘This water is warmed by direct contact with the hose or the warm soil adjacent to the hose.’
      • ‘This is a great time to sow hardy annuals from seed while the soil is still warm.’
      • ‘Fota means ‘warm turf’ or warm soil, an appropriate name for a garden that basks in the mild Cork climate.’
      • ‘I like the nurturing aspect that tucking a seedling into warm soil brings.’
      • ‘They'll germinate and plants will get established much faster in warm soils.’
      • ‘Coliform bacteria is most likely to be found during periods of wet weather when the soil is warm.’
      • ‘The warm soil, full of weed seed ready to grow, responds to tillage quickly with a new flush of weeds.’
      • ‘Other species of bulbs are perfectly suited for the open, sunny habitat and dry, warm soil of rock gardens.’
      • ‘Sunlight passes through the plastic and heats the soil, which stays warm.’
      • ‘With my warm soil, the peas grew well, even under thick mulches of newspapers weighted down by horse bedding.’
      • ‘The supply of nitrogen and sulfur from the soil will return to normal once the soil is warm.’
      • ‘Now that soil is thoroughly warm, newly planted melon seedlings should thrive.’
  • 2Having, showing, or expressive of enthusiasm, affection, or kindness.

    ‘they exchanged warm, friendly smiles’
    ‘a warm welcome’
    • ‘We thank sincerely the organisers and helpers for their very warm welcome and hospitality.’
    • ‘They were nearly always together on social occasions and the warm smile and friendly handshake was part of every greeting.’
    • ‘She had an innate sense of compassion which reached out to the wider community and her ready smile radiated a warm welcome which endeared her to so many.’
    • ‘Despite a warm welcome from golfers, caddies were less enthusiastic.’
    • ‘A warm welcome with a pleasant smile awaited us as we entered the hotel room where she was put up with her cousin sis.’
    • ‘There was a warm and hearty welcome for all visitors to the Timothy family home and Mrs. Timothy always ensured that the kettle was on the boil.’
    • ‘People are very friendly over here and they honour their guests with a warm welcome.’
    • ‘On behalf of himself and his family who received such a warm welcome, your kindness and generosity will be gratefully remembered.’
    • ‘It is one of the most homely places in town where a warm welcome and friendly smile awaits all visitors.’
    • ‘You could always go back a few hours or the night afterwards and be welcomed back with warm smiles.’
    • ‘York played host to the tenth and final leg of Chapman's month-long UK tour, and an eager audience gave her a warm welcome and a fond farewell.’
    • ‘Successful tourism for this country should begin there with smiles and warm welcomes.’
    • ‘But it sure was a far cry from the civility and warm kindness he showed me during that other party.’
    • ‘A regular visitor to the station, the Mayor commended Julie for always greeting him with a warm welcome and a smile.’
    • ‘In fact, when people understand why refugees come here the welcome is generally warm and friendly.’
    • ‘Jane admits to feeling much relieved by his presence, his warm voice and affection, next to her bed.’
    • ‘We all gave them very warm, loud and enthusiastic Southern California welcome.’
    • ‘All those who knew her and especially those many who gained so much from her tuition, warm friendship and generous kindness will miss her very much indeed.’
    • ‘Catherine was a lovely lady, kind natured and had a warm welcome for her friends.’
    • ‘They said they were overwhelmed by the warm welcome and kindness received from local people.’
    friendly, comradely, affable, amiable, genial, cordial, kindly, kind, pleasant, sympathetic, affectionate, warm-hearted, good-natured, loving, tender, fond
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    1. 2.1archaic Characterized by lively or heated disagreement.
      ‘a warm debate arose’
    2. 2.2archaic Sexually explicit or titillating.
  • 3(of a color) containing red, yellow, or orange tones.

    ‘her fair coloring suited soft, warm shades’
    • ‘In West Arcade, colours will be warm hues of grey, from blue-grey and green-grey, to red.’
    • ‘The dark wood is complemented by the walls, which are part-papered in warm beige tones.’
    • ‘In Indian summers, when the weather is still good enough to sit out, it's great to have some pots on your patio full of plants with rich, warm colours.’
    • ‘I've chosen a warm beige/brown colour, the name escapes me, but it had Kenya in the title and I thought that quite apt.’
    • ‘The walls, adjustable lighting and curtains are all in warm colour tones to ease anxiety.’
    • ‘Dramatic floral prints in rose or orange blossom add a splash of warm colour to whites and neutrals.’
    • ‘It retains many of its original features, has been well maintained over the years and is decorated in warm colours throughout.’
    • ‘What with all the multi-shades of warm colours of a mop of hair, and funky dressing with an apron shoved on top.’
    • ‘The bedroom was decorated in warm hues, and was designed to cheer a person up.’
    • ‘With its attractive decor, warm colour schemes and super location, this is likely to appeal to young families.’
    • ‘The warm colours and textures are homely and comfortable - just walking around the shop feels good.’
    • ‘The narrow entrance hall leads to a larger reception hall decorated in warm colours, with light coming from a glass and pine door.’
    • ‘The blues have a warm tint to them now, due to the gentle lighting of the room.’
    • ‘The family appears middle-class, living in attractive apartments, where the colours are warm and the flowers opulent.’
    • ‘This tine the flame stayed, but instead of warm orange, yellow or red it was black.’
    • ‘There are also a range of hybrids in warm yellow and orange tones.’
    • ‘The warm colour of the wood gave the room a sensual feel, but neither really realized.’
    • ‘Colours are powdered pastels, warm naturals, primary colours and unusual accents.’
    • ‘Following a weekend down the islands, her face got two shades darker, making the warm beige foundation of no use to her.’
    • ‘In the midst of winter, nature provides us with warm colours of orange and reds to give the impression of warmth.’
  • 4(of a scent or trail) fresh; strong.

    • ‘Lucas like the ocean, pear scented ocean, warm and strong to take him away.’
    • ‘He felt its warm aroma fill his nostrils, and he turned his head away.’
    • ‘Walking into the kitchen, I could already smell the warm aroma of waffles and syrup.’
    • ‘Without the aid of vision, when a plate arrives, the first sensation is smell, but you also feel the warm aroma tickling your nose.’
    • ‘From the kitchen came other warm scents from the foods that were being prepared.’
    • ‘The flavour varies according to species or cultivar, but is generally of a sharp and bittersweet taste with a strong and warm aroma.’
    • ‘It had warm aromas of prunes, cocoa and caramel, which brought out the flavors of the chocolate cake wonderfully.’
    • ‘Sighing deeply, Adam caught the long remembered scent of warm pine pitch and dust.’
    • ‘I smell the warm aroma of delicious fresh dung seeping through the heap.’
    • ‘Try orange or clove to get a rich, warm scent and lavender for a light, fresh, spring-like aroma.’
    1. 4.1informal predicative (especially in children's games) close to discovering something or guessing the correct answer.
      ‘you're getting warmer’
      close, near, about to make a discovery, on the brink of making a discovery
      View synonyms


  • Make or become warm.

    with object ‘I stamped my feet to warm them up’
    figurative ‘the film warmed our hearts’
    no object ‘it's a bit chilly in here, but it'll soon warm up’
    • ‘But all that aside, I think this film warmed my heart more than anything I've seen in a long time.’
    • ‘Stella the happy talker, with a laugh that fills the room and warms the heart.’
    • ‘Each school has its own special way of doing things on the night - the naturalness of those graduating warms the heart.’
    • ‘And that fire warms the pages of fantasy literature so much that tress whisper and rivers weep.’
    • ‘He is so innocent but so smart, he warms my heart every time I think of him and I will do my best to make sure all his dreams come true as will his parents.’
    • ‘After dealing with it for so long, I really grew to appreciate it, rather than hate it, even if it didn't always warm my heart.’
    • ‘He warms not only the little girl's heart, but also all the millions who made this movie a classic.’
    • ‘Nothing warms my heart more than reading tales of people that are able to get results from our federal government.’
    • ‘It warms your heart more deeply than the standard holiday treacle, but this is, all the same, an intelligent, humane, funny and sorrowful Christmas treat.’
    • ‘The idea of Jesse warms my heart immensely and gives me some happiness when I otherwise would feel lonely and bitter.’
    • ‘It's pretty predictable, but there is one phrase in the article that warms my heart.’
    • ‘The geyser works on solar heaters, which warms my planet-loving heart.’
    • ‘As it stands, it's a flawed but still engaging film that should warm the hearts of more adventurous filmgoers.’
    • ‘It can stir up strong emotions from the first notes heard, driving even the coldest of people to warm their hearts.’
    • ‘You know, everybody has just come together for me, and I cannot tell you how that warms my heart.’
    • ‘It warms your heart and makes you smile to think that there is hope that these two could become friends in addition to being brothers.’
    • ‘Above all, he was a decent person, and his human decency is the fire that warms his writing.’
    • ‘The sight is enough to warm the heart of any environmentalist.’
    • ‘Just don't let it warm your heart so much that you let your anger cool.’
    • ‘As the oceans and ground warm up, they warm the air next to them, and this air warms the air a little higher up and so on.’
    heat, heat up, become warm, make warm, become hot, make hot, raise the temperature of, increase in temperature, thaw, thaw out, melt, take the chill off
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  • warm fuzzy (or warm and fuzzy)

    • informal Used to refer to a sentimentally emotional response or something designed to evoke such a response.

      ‘babies require a lot of attention, not just momentary warm fuzzies’
      • ‘I long for the days when comics weren't so treacly and warm and fuzzy.’
      • ‘The tax analogy may not be warm and fuzzy, but it's close to the truth - spending a few minutes every few years voting is the part of the price we pay to live in a democracy.’
      • ‘The company's putting on a nice public face, but the degree of insider sales by senior officers does not make one feel warm and fuzzy inside.’
      • ‘Yeah, you can send care packages and put yellow ribbon magnets on your car to make you feel all warm and fuzzy that you're doing your own small part.’
      • ‘That's the kind of stuff that makes coaches, even stone-faced ones like Popovich, feel warm and fuzzy inside.’
      • ‘It's the usual questionnaire which invites the interviewee to give many negative responses without ever actually asking why you aren't warm and fuzzy.’
      • ‘Are we only going to pick the pieces of sustainability that we like, look doable, meet our agendas, or are just warm and fuzzy?’
      • ‘Is this real journalism or a kind of a form of cheerleading, where everybody benefits, because it's all soft and warm and fuzzy?’
      • ‘People love to hate Martha because she has this reputation of kind of being hard-nosed and not all that warm and fuzzy.’
      • ‘Nan gets all warm and fuzzy when reuniting animals with their families.’
  • keep something warm for someone

    • Hold or occupy a place or post until another person is ready to do so.

      • ‘For what it is worth, Orton did look pretty good as the champion, but he did just keep the championship belt warm for the old pro while he was doing his movie business.’
      • ‘But Brown, who was then recovering from knee surgery, has a chance to regain his starting spot - even if it is only to keep it warm for another person.’
      • ‘This is not to say that Smith will merely keep the job warm for Palmer to take it over next year.’
      • ‘I'm heading your way in January, so keep a place warm for me.’
      • ‘I'll keep the bed warm for you if you want to come find out why.’
      • ‘The Cubs let last year's second baseman Eric Young depart in the hopes that journeyman Delino DeShields could keep the position warm for Hill.’
      • ‘He brought me into the job, so I wouldn't sit here and keep his seat warm for somebody else.’
      • ‘Tell the waiter to keep a table warm for me, ok?’
      • ‘It's just the furnace room, something has to keep this place warm for you.’
      • ‘All I was going to ask was that you keep a spot warm for me here.’

Phrasal Verbs

  • warm down

    • Recover from strenuous physical exertion by doing gentle stretches and exercises.

      • ‘Basically adequate warm up, warm down, stretching, correct training, good diet and when possible, correcting bio mechanical problems are the best buffers against injuries.’
      • ‘‘It was nice to beat Michael, even though he was only warming down after his freestyle race,’ Parry said.’
      • ‘I thought it was a better way to warm down than to run on my own.’
      • ‘Everyone was warming down and slowly disappearing into the change rooms.’
      • ‘That fourth goal earned Walsall a point at home to Stoke last Saturday and after the game Brian Beard spoke to Paul as he was warming down.’
      • ‘He finished the challenge with a 25-length warm down.’
      • ‘An adequate warm up, the selection of safe exercises and movement patterns, regular monitoring of body alignment and exercise intensity, and an appropriate warm down are important.’
      • ‘The Knights are booked in for a post-match swim tonight to help them warm down, then they will have a light training session on Sunday morning ahead of Monday's game.’
      • ‘To warm down you have to wait until you loose the pump of your last exercise.’
      • ‘You can warm down physically by walking around or doing lighter (using less energy) exercises.’
  • warm to (or warm up to)

    • 1Begin to like (someone)

      ‘she and Will had really warmed up to each other’
      • ‘He can be an important player for this club and the fans are now beginning to warm to him.’
      • ‘They break down in the desert, begin to warm to each other and then realise that they might not hate each other after all.’
      • ‘Linda had been cautious around the men at first, though she hadn't snubbed them, but lately she was beginning to warm up to their attentions.’
      • ‘As Kathryn begins to warm up to Kevin, Max and Jinx become friends.’
      • ‘As the most avid fan of the books, America applied her newly learned Pants philosophies and immediately warmed to Blake.’
      • ‘Murali and Madhi warmed to each other immediately and the horoscopes matched well.’
      • ‘Bea had a most generous nature to which people warmed to immediately and her kindness and good deeds were legendary.’
      • ‘Ron even began to warm up to him after Landon started taking orders from the staff and buying everyone's drinks for them.’
      • ‘It took a couple of days, but they are beginning to warm to us being around.’
      • ‘He is an avid player and if you are an intelligent, inquisitive student, he will warm to you immediately.’
      like, take to, get on with, get on well with, feel a fondness for, feel attracted to, feel well disposed towards, hit it off with, be on good terms with, feel sympathetic to
      View synonyms
      1. 1.1Become more interested in or enthusiastic about (something)
        ‘I never really warmed to the idea of moving’
        • ‘Mr Brown's priority is public services and the Treasury has not warmed to the idea of British membership over the past four years; it appears to be even more wary now than it was in 1997.’
        • ‘Jowell warms to her theme: by simply treating voters as consumers, ‘we will miss the opportunity to build a better kind of society’.’
        • ‘He said increasing numbers of companies were warming to the idea, and 9.9 was keen to work on similar projects, whether at home or abroad, in the future.’
        • ‘The Minister for Communications, Senator Alston, initially warmed to the idea, but denies that it's because the Government has changed its strategy on splitting up the telco.’
        • ‘One very important consequence of this was that many people included in the still emerging state, and who might have been warming to the idea of nation, were alienated from it.’
        • ‘Though Nora is at first reluctant about going away for the holidays, she soon warms to the idea.’
        • ‘Auckland University remains firmly opposed, although it is understood that some universities are warming to the idea.’
        • ‘Year 6 Pupils from the six main feeder pupils to Our Lady and St John RC High School, Blackburn, are at present warming to the idea of their secondary school lives ahead.’
        • ‘She warms to her theme of the idiosyncrasies of the Loach method.’
        • ‘He survived building that railroad,’ said the old chap, resting on a nearby grave and warming to his theme.’
        become enthusiastic about, become supportive of, become excited about, become excited over, become animated about, become animated over
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  • warm up

    • 1Prepare for physical exertion or a performance by exercising or practicing gently beforehand.

      ‘the band was warming up’
      • ‘The day was run by two teachers, Rodney and Brian, and we began in the morning with physical and vocal warm up.’
      • ‘Next, students practice warming up exercises in unison.’
      • ‘During practice or to warm up before a game, turn this team sport into a one-on-one competition.’
      • ‘The classes start with a short aerobic exercise to warm up the body before a 20 minute session on the poles.’
      • ‘The Horsforth Old Brass Band entertained the crowd who were warmed up before the turning on ceremony by radio presenters Jon Hammond and Steve Warren.’
      • ‘Be sure to warm up and stretch before exercising.’
      • ‘The following exercises are for stretching and warming up the muscles before shooting and for stretching and cooling down the muscles after shooting.’
      • ‘It is important that you warm up gently before you start any exercises and do not strain at all.’
      • ‘The jogging was intended to provide an easy warm up activity that also prepared the muscles for stretching.’
      • ‘There's tones in the song, if you engage in it as a singer, and reach that place as a singer in the falsetto, and it's just a beautiful exercise to warm up your larynx.’
      limber up, loosen up, stretch, work out, exercise, get into condition, get into shape, practise, prepare, get ready
      View synonyms
      1. 1.1(of an engine or electrical appliance) reach a temperature high enough to allow it to operate efficiently.
        • ‘In a minute I'm in my car with the doors locked and the engine warming up.’
        • ‘Check that the tyre pressures are correct, the brakes are in good working order and that the engine warms up as quickly as possible.’
        • ‘Ken set the mixtures to auto lean and warmed up the engines at 1000 rpm.’
        • ‘By this time the truck's engine has warmed up enough to allow a shift up into second gear, then third and finally fourth - or top gear.’
        • ‘Instead of waiting for the car to warm up, it is better to drive the vehicle in low gear till the engine warms up.’
        • ‘The car may not start well and works rather sluggishly until the engine warms up.’
        • ‘This allows the engine to warm up faster, cutting exhaust emissions, and reduces fuel consumption by about 3 percent because it is not geared to the engine.’
        • ‘A swirl control valve that increases the air/fuel mixture when the engine is warming up improves combustion.’
        • ‘Although now I can hear the noise of the snowploughs working away and some aircraft warming up their engines.’
        • ‘A spokesman for AA Roadwatch advised motorists to take extra care in the arctic conditions and to allow more time to warm up their vehicles in the morning.’
      2. 1.2Become livelier or more animated.
        ‘after several more rounds, things began to warm up in the bar’
  • warm something up (or over)

    • 1Reheat previously cooked food.

      • ‘Make the sponge by warming the milk over low heat in a small saucepan until it's tepid.’
      • ‘In a small pan, warm the black beans over low heat.’
      • ‘Add the remaining chickpeas, and warm the soup over medium heat.’
      • ‘To make it yourself, crush a garlic clove in a few tablespoons of olive oil and gently warm it over the stove for 30 minutes.’
      • ‘In a small saucepan, warm the oil over low heat.’
      • ‘For the Arctic char confit: In a saucepan, warm the oil over low heat.’
      • ‘Then warm the jam over low heat in a small nonstick saucepan or skillet, stirring occasionally, until smooth.’
      • ‘In a large skillet or sauté pan, warm the olive oil over high heat, almost to the smoking point.’
      reheated, heated up
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      1. 1.1Amuse or entertain an audience or crowd so as to make them more receptive to the main act.
        • ‘Nightclub DJs feel the pulse of the crowd, warm them up with some pop and play the current dance hits.’
        • ‘Without a studio audience to warm things up, Vaughan's attempts to jolly things along fall flat to the sounds of nervous giggles from the crew.’
        • ‘By the time Papa Roach exited the stage at around 9 pm, the crowd was warmed up and ready for the main entertainment, the Red Hot Chilli Peppers.’
        • ‘A band, in slow, last chorus finality, warms the crowd up nicely.’
        • ‘Prior to Simon's appearance the crowd was warmed up by local singer Brian O'Gorman, who treated all to an ensemble of everything from The Stunning to Crowded House.’
        • ‘The host for the evening, MC Silky was great, making everyone feel welcome and relaxed, playing silly songs on his guitar and telling good jokes to warm the audience up.’
        • ‘So Dalrymple warmed the audience up at the Oxford-Bookstore Gallery with a few Comic Anecdotes.’
        • ‘I merely thought that Raczysnki was warming the crowd up for the inevitable madness to come.’
        • ‘There were hundreds of extras there playing the studio audience, and I found myself warming them up, telling them what would happen and what was expected of them.’
        • ‘Scottish folk favourite John McCusker will do his bit to warm the audience up with his fiddle playing.’
        enliven, liven, liven up, stimulate, animate, rouse, put some life into, stir, stir up, move, excite, cheer up
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Old English wearm (adjective), werman, wearmian (verb), of Germanic origin; related to Dutch and German warm, from an Indo-European root shared by Latin formus ‘warm’ and Greek thermos ‘hot’.