Definition of typology in US English:

typology

noun

  • 1A classification according to general type, especially in archaeology, psychology, or the social sciences.

    ‘a typology of Saxon cremation vessels’
    • ‘Capturing the laboratories' roles and institutional designs in all their richness is expected to lead to better typologies for use by policy makers to design more informed and more targeted policies for government science.’
    • ‘Pavlov and his colleagues made life-long efforts to blend both behavioural and psychophysiological observations into typologies.’
    • ‘Classification schemes or typologies that use acculturation and indicators of family functioning may prove to be useful screening mechanisms for guiding prenatal care intervention strategies.’
    • ‘The broader issue comes into focus when we address the nature of typologies.’
    • ‘Young's readings of Northern, Southern, white and African-American authors illustrate how cultural typologies and literary tropes slide almost imperceptibly from one meaning to another.’
    • ‘Different typologies used to define fluted bifaces also create some differences.’
    • ‘These and related typologies classify tasks in part according to how routine or interdependent they are, distinctions that help to explain when diversity will be most beneficial.’
    • ‘Chapter 2 introduces models of two parent families in respect of the reconciliation of work and care and briefly discusses typologies of welfare states.’
    • ‘Sound empirical research is particularly lacking on risk estimation and typologies of children who set fires.’
    • ‘Although these typologies are not mutually exclusive, Grignon uses them to understand the situations when people dine together.’
    • ‘The other possibility would be to explore such typologies in the Irish archive on other historical subjects.’
    • ‘The important thing to recognize is that because typologies and resultant classification schema are imposed on the data set, their validity can only be determined by their usefulness.’
    • ‘The narratives of three local leaders in Vanuatu's recent history, provide a context for evaluating the relative merits of such typologies when the grounds of leadership itself are contested.’
    • ‘Begue warns that the Algiers School's emphasis on physical racial differences could manifest itself in new biological typologies.’
    • ‘Marital researchers and therapists began developing typologies in the early 1960s to uncover ‘natural’ groupings of married couples.’
    • ‘The classic categorisations of folklore scholarship, such as the Aarne-Thompson typologies, deal with more fictional or imaginative - and not with historical - narrative.’
    • ‘These two periods, then, confronted different typologies of racial subjugation.’
    • ‘Like all classification systems, genre typologies are not naive, innocent or objective.’
    • ‘Similar descriptions have been applied to children classified as overcontrolled in the research on personality typologies.’
    • ‘From the perspective of museum curators, librarians, and other collections managers, there has not necessarily been a great demand to establish standardized typologies for erotica.’
    1. 1.1 Study or analysis using typology.
      • ‘And they're primarily dating, according to ceramic typology - that is, what the sherds tell them about the date.’
      • ‘There were three reasons for using an attribute-based flake typology to analyze the collections.’
      • ‘Jung's typology is open to the same objection as all other typologies, namely, that it seeks to constrain the apparently infinite variety of human psychological traits within narrow, arbitrarily imposed categories.’
      • ‘In China, the rise of the Pure Land school popularized this idea, and spurred many centuries of theoretical accounts of the nature of the Pure Lands, and the genesis of typologies that sought to classify the various types of Pure Lands.’
      • ‘So, I was very resistant to typologies in general but, to me, the Enneagram was very very powerful because it got right down to the basic way we organise our attention, our perceptual filters our point of view.’
      • ‘By applying this typology to the analysis of gestures, the researcher found that in addition to support communication of mathematical thinking, participants used certain gestures to regulate their own understanding.’
      • ‘Building on the work of Feagin, Phinney and Chavira formulated an empirically derived typology of ethnic minority adolescents' responses to racial discrimination.’
      • ‘Definitions of addiction, on the other hand, dominated by all-or-none categories of the effects of drug usage, often ignore highly differential typologies and reasons for a problem with a specific drug.’
      • ‘In conclusion, a three-factor leisure typology, supported through factor analysis, has been presented here.’
      • ‘Although this study is exploratory and does not require a representative sample, support for the efficacy of this typology is found in the subsequent analysis on the methamphetamine users mentioned previously.’
      • ‘Finally, the study also utilizes the Miles and Snow typology for classifying firms according to their strategy, thus providing a more systematic analysis of the relationship between firm strategy and executive compensation.’
      • ‘In an attempt to understand both the causal and maintaining factors involved in firesetting, personality typologies have been used, but no specific profile exists of a child or adolescent firesetter.’
      • ‘The classificatory character of genre analysis can be exploited in information work if we understand that the problems of genre typologies mirror the problems of classification systems in general.’
      • ‘Initially his analysis was done on the basis of artefact typology.’
      • ‘Maurice Duverger, in Political Parties, developed a more extended typology of modern parties based on Weber's analysis.’
      • ‘The typology facilitates more effective analysis and discussion of policy issues.’
      • ‘Eliade's typology separated shamans from priests - the latter indulged in ‘plagiaristic aping’ of the original - and, as has often been argued since, claimed that shamanism had no place in Africa.’
      • ‘Several therapists have developed typologies of affairs.’
      • ‘It groups activities based upon reasons for being involved in them - achievement, social, and time-out leisure - in contrast with more numerous typologies based on activity type.’
      • ‘In Dr. Budd's typology, the ‘Science’ of yesteryear has been relegated to the category of ‘Sentiment.’’
  • 2The study and interpretation of types and symbols, originally especially in the Bible.

    • ‘The history of interpretation mitigates an absolute distinction between typology and allegory.’
    • ‘He used typology and symbols in the furnishings of the tabernacle, the 7 feast days, as well as people.’
    • ‘Though he is often celebrated as the American father of Protestant liberalism, Horace Bushnell's biography and writing defy the categories of theological typology.’
    • ‘We have seen above that Hippolytus, in his Adam-Christ typology, sees in the incarnation of Christ the rebirth of the many as new, perfected human beings.’
    • ‘Again, better acquaintance with Yoder's work would have helped Webster question the continuing usefulness of this churchsect typology and see that pacifism need not result in total separation between church and state.’
    • ‘Benne is to be commended especially for the effort and creativity that resulted in his typology.’
    • ‘But even Schluchter's erudite typology of stances to the world of religious virtuosi fails to incorporate the full range of variation within the ecclesia afforded by the inclusion of women.’
    • ‘All this imagery occurs with shades of the medieval world of Dante's Inferno, Virgil's Aeneid, and the fire-and-brimstone typology of the Bible.’
    • ‘The typology hermeneutic ties us into the concept of an ongoing reformation within the church.’
    • ‘Worship now, Jesus says, is in spirit and truth, the internals of motive, intensity, and sincerity replacing the external symbols and typology that previously existed.’
    • ‘Here Dawn enters into conversation with other authors, especially William Stringfellow and Walter Wink, draws out her appreciation of their insights, and provides her critique of Wink's typology.’
    • ‘And secondly, and perhaps of more initial concern for Orthodox women, this now altered typology is being used definitively rather than descriptively toward women.’
    • ‘We are dealing then with a pneumatological typology that still bears the imprint of the liturgical thinking of the early church.’
    • ‘The altered Eve-Mary typology, ironically, may not have been utilized by the symposium, if the previous relational Orthodox Trinitarian model were reflected upon more seriously.’
    • ‘Anders Nygren's typology of eros and agape gets taken up throughout.’
    • ‘Above all, this question can no longer be interpreted through typology.’
    • ‘In pursuit of his theory Mazza ignores much evidence of somatic realism in patristic thought, in order to concentrate on those liturgies and theologians who saw the Eucharistic act in terms of typology and likeness.’
    • ‘The typology of Adam and Christ has its origins in the theology of the apostle Paul, who again and again goes back to the story of Genesis, interpreting and applying it in a traditional way.’
    • ‘Using biblical typology as his method of interpretation, Paul treats Moses as a type of the apostles and their ministry.’
    • ‘Indeed, Gibson's movie begins with Jesus crushing the head of the serpent in the garden, and Adam-Christ / Eve-Mary typology is apparent throughout it.’

Origin

Mid 19th century (in typology (sense 2)): from Greek tupos ‘type’ + -logy.

Pronunciation

typology

/tīˈpäləjē//taɪˈpɑlədʒi/