A membrane forming part of the organ of hearing, which vibrates in response to sound waves. In humans and other higher vertebrates it forms the eardrum, between the outer and middle ear.
- ‘Sound waves reaching the tympanic membrane will initiate vibrations that are transmitted through the bony ossicles of the middle ear to the oval window.’
- ‘Tympanic readings represent a close correlation to patients' core temperatures because of the close proximity of the carotid arteries that vascularize the tympanic membrane and hypothalamus.’
- ‘By changes in their development, the articular and the quadrate bones in mammals were modified into two bones, the malleus and incus, whose function was now to transmit sound from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear.’
- ‘The most common cause of the type B tracing is decreased mobility of the tympanic membrane secondary to middle ear fluid (otitis media with effusion).’
- ‘It's an infection that starts off as normal ear infection from quite young, and ends up perforating the tympanic membrane, the eardrum, and pus is visible in the external ear.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.