A chemically modified toxin from a pathogenic microorganism, which is no longer toxic but is still antigenic and can be used as a vaccine.
- ‘No evidence shows an increased risk from vaccinating pregnant women with inactivated virus or bacterial vaccines or toxoids.’
- ‘There has never been a case of tetanus in people who have received three doses of toxoid, which is a chemically neutralized toxin from the bacteria and cannot give the disease.’
- ‘One part of the schedule lists immunizations indicated by age, particularly influenza, tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.’
- ‘Active immunization by vaccination with tetanus toxoid (an inactivated form of the toxin) is now usual in childhood, along with diphtheria and whooping cough vaccines.’
- ‘Males responded to vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids by producing specific antibodies to both antigens.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.