Definition of summation in English:



  • 1The process of adding things together.

    ‘the summation of numbers of small pieces of evidence’
    • ‘The two most often cited explanations for this phenomenon are unmasking of the effects of deleterious recessive alleles and summation of the dominant effects of multiple loci brought together in the progeny.’
    • ‘The last term in this summation and the last summation account for the pairwise interdependence of the torsion and/or bond angle bending.’
    • ‘An efficient algorithm for Ewald summation calculations for the multistate empirical valence bond model is also introduced.’
    • ‘The last N is then transposed to its digit multiple set against summation.’
    • ‘This GB / SA model involves a costly pairwise summation and is consequently computationally nearly as expensive as the explicit water MD simulations.’
    • ‘A cut-off was used for van der Waals interactions and PME summation was used for calculation of the electrostatic interactions.’
    • ‘Simple summation of individual feather scores as in the standard method is shown by the solid circles and results in a line that deviates considerably from mass and from linearity.’
    • ‘This book is a treatise on infinite series, summation, interpolation and quadrature.’
    • ‘My personal feeling is that it is simply impossible to understand or conceptualize the process of summation without remembering the famous formula.’
    • ‘In all simulations the time step was 2 fs, periodic boundary conditions were applied, and long-range electrostatic interactions were calculated by Ewald summation.’
    • ‘By the study of the harmonic series and related sums, Euler systematically developed an important method of summation of series which is now known as Euler-Maclaurin summation.’
    • ‘Some software packages give the user the option to select an unweighted aggregation based on a summation across the sample and a simple division by sample size.’
    • ‘The summation and multiple integration required to calculate the integrated likelihood for s 01 and s 10 are impossible to perform analytically.’
    • ‘They learned of each other's discoveries because each of them communicated his work to James Stirling, whose approximation for the factorial is a special case of the Euler-Maclaurin summation.’
    • ‘Thirteen of the 34 studies mentioned above included data on all species in a faunal group, so the density of the entire fauna could be calculated by summation.’
    • ‘These short simulations were run with periodic boundary conditions, constant temperature and pressure, and employed Ewald summation for electrostatic calculations.’
    • ‘The idea is to reverse the order of summation in both denominator and numerator in Equation 2.’
    • ‘In SM-Chol and pure SM systems we found that the area per molecule was sensitive to the cutoff range and that it increased when electrostatic interactions were calculated using Ewald summation.’
    • ‘In the case of the standard approach, this summation is done implicitly; it is necessary to only calculate the likelihood of the partial pattern because the sum of the remaining unknown probabilities is 1.’
    • ‘For instance, nickel and chromium, when present together in steel, can cause a greater segregation of antimony than might be expected from simple summation of their separate effects.’
    final decision, summation, final statement, definitive statement, conclusive comment
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    1. 1.1 A sum total of things added together.
      • ‘The summation of all relative weights of each element will be 1.000.’
      • ‘In the proposed algorithms, the total deduct-value for a specific sample is a weighted summation of each individual deduct-value that is present.’
      • ‘Total incremental height growth is a summation of first flush and lammas flush growth.’
      • ‘Similarly, a summation across the corresponding days in feed gave the total days AGP are fed.’
      • ‘The multilocus estimates are lower than the summation of the five individual estimates, suggesting the existence of additional genetic components contributing to variation in dormancy in this population.’
      • ‘Here is the summation of the additive major gene effect ga, the variance of polygenic effect Ga, and the error variance e.’
      • ‘The ratio of abundance in one year to abundance in the next was calculated as the ratio of summed counts in the two years, with the summation taken over only those sites that were surveyed in both years.’
      • ‘The net force acting on both charges, obtained by the summation of individual forces is plotted as a bar diagram in Fig.11 D.’
      • ‘For example, business cycle indicators such as the Conference Board's indexes of leading, coincident, and lagging indicators are essentially weighted summations of key monthly indicators.’
      • ‘Third, the likelihood is calculated by reducing the integration over six dimensions to effectively the summation over two dimensions.’
      • ‘That is, phenotypic value data were generated following a normal distribution with variance 1.0 and mean determined by the summation of the genetic effects of QTL.’
      • ‘Therefore, although it is the summation of light from several millimeters of tissue, the transilluminated signal gives the appearance of originating from a fairly restricted depth.’
      • ‘Instead, a weighted summation of successive estimates of transmitted symbols is converted to VSB signal to supply the feedback signal for the iterative filtering.’
      • ‘We therefore confirm that you have received our cheque in the sum of £112700.00 being the summation of the above mentioned value of £98000.00 plus VAT of £14700.00.’
      • ‘Indeed, the summation of the semi-cone angle degree on the right side of the expression is higher than the summation of the degree on the left side of the equation.’
      • ‘Of these laws the summation theorems have a counterpart in the control analysis of oscillatory systems.’
      • ‘The overall chest radiographic score was the summation of scores from both lungs, with a total score of 20.’
      • ‘If matter is atomic, then it is already a collection of determinate objects in its own right, and it becomes natural to regard the properties of macroscopic substances as mere summations of the natures of the atoms.’
      • ‘The resulting change in mood or behavior is the summation of these neuromodulations and is quite complex.’
      • ‘A competitive equilibrium is given by a price vector p so that the market demands obtained by the summation of individual demands are equal, commodity by commodity, to the market supply.’
      total, sum total, grand total, tally, aggregate, gross
      entirety, totality, total, whole, aggregate, beginning and end, alpha and omega, be-all and end-all
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  • 2The process of summing something up.

    ‘these will need summation in a single document’
    • ‘This implies that there is complicated (non-linear) summation of signals converging on to the cell from the retina surrounding the blind spot.’
    1. 2.1 A summary.
      • ‘But the work as a whole is a perfect summation of the very ideas proposed by minimal art: taking the bare minimum of sounds and reworking them to create something interesting, challenging, and rewarding.’
      • ‘The movie actually offers a brief summation of this premise during its closing credits, which present highlights sequentially from both Cocoon and the sequel.’
      • ‘He reiterates the issues at the end of each chapter, with a brief summation of the argument, thus giving the reader a basic understanding of each author's particular intention.’
      • ‘Thus far, it might be a reasonable summation to say that Tangled Destinies describes the impact of European settlement on Australia, and Horizons describes the kind of people who came here and the means of their governance.’
      • ‘There's a lot of other interesting stuff going on beneath this simple summation, definitely worth reading.’
      • ‘It was painted from notes she made while traveling in the district, and is a summation of her landscape style and ideals which often ended in a form of primitive cubism.’
      • ‘The following is a brief summation of acupuncture's innovations and developments and their socio-political context from the end of the Han dynasty through modern times.’
      • ‘But I for one see nothing wrong with it as a brief summation of our proper role in world affairs.’
      • ‘You must remember our view that the dossier as a whole was quite a decent dossier and represented a reasonable summation.’
      • ‘I think the 99 percent of us who have not read that work should defer to Mouw's summation that this is one of the mysteries that ultimately lies beyond human comprehension.’
      • ‘Within each, Rody presents a series of readings on canonical and non-canonical authors with entire chapters devoted to some writers, sections, paragraphs and brief plot summations for others.’
      • ‘The essayists are not all British but all of their expositions are measured, well stated summations of a middling to moderately conservative treatment of Paul.’
      • ‘Until then, these summations from Four Word Reviews will keep me company.’
      • ‘Mazower dutifully ends his narrative with brief summations of its recent progress, but they can only come as anticlimax to the terrific events of its past.’
      • ‘In short, we must be satisfied with Garza's brief summations which, on examination, often do not concur with the narratives.’
      • ‘With all this eccentric wordplay under review, an ironic summation is in order.’
      • ‘We asked officials of the prospective members to give us a brief summation of their strengths.’
      • ‘In each of the following instances, I've tried to give a simple one line summation about the urban legend in question.’
      • ‘The paper is really just a ‘review of the literature,’ i.e., a summation of the state of knowledge about anything related to teleportation.’
      • ‘The final paragraph is, however, a good summation of the current state of affairs.’
      summary, precis, synopsis, abstract, outline, summarization
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    2. 2.2Law An attorney's closing speech at the conclusion of the giving of evidence.
      • ‘At that point also both families in the courtroom had wept during the summations.’
      • ‘Perhaps the best way of demonstrating that is to look at the directions from 235 to 236 and particularly at 236 at about line 50 where her Honour gave a summation, a summary.’
      • ‘The judge made his decision on the assessments made by all three and in fact marked out praise on the social worker in his summation.’
      • ‘The judge will tell the court tomorrow whether the summations will be at the end of this week or the beginning of next week.’
      • ‘Rather, their lawyers cross examine the government's witnesses, and argue in their opening summation that the government has not met its burden of proof beyond a reasonable doubt.’
      • ‘The lawyer is not allowed to refer to the false testimony during summation.’
      • ‘In their summation to jurors, prosecutors again sought literature as a touchstone, but not noir fiction this time.’
      • ‘She said the court would issue its verdict after considering these summations, adding that she could not say when the verdict would be delivered.’
      • ‘The prosecutor's summation, however, is strong and powerful.’
      • ‘On Monday, the defence and the prosecution will deliver their final summations.’