One of the mysteries of the English language finally explained.
Definition of sum in English:
sum
noun
1A particular amount of money.
‘they could not afford such a sum’- ‘Most Japanese currently hold large sums of money in secure savings accounts that yield zero interest.’
- ‘In the meantime, on 25 July 2003 the respondent filed a summons seeking an order for security for costs in the sum of $80,000.’
- ‘I consider in the absence of greater detail, and taking into account the applicant's status and ability to pay the costs, that the sum of £1500 is reasonable in the circumstances.’
- ‘I will order the appellant to pay costs in the sum of £4,500.’
- ‘So there will be an order for the payment of the claimant's costs in the sum of £12, 687.98.’
- ‘In addition to this sum, Alstom are to pay interest at 9% pa calculated in accordance with this decision.’
- ‘It's not known how much all this has cost but the sum of $100 million has been bandied about.’
- ‘Through your generosity the sum of €870 was raised.’
- ‘If it cannot prove that children from the most chaotic families arrive at the age of five ready to learn, future politicians will not be inclined to pay out large sums to keep it going.’
- ‘That is because unlike in years past, buyers at this level can now borrow large sums in the form of mortgages.’
- ‘In any event Mr Graham, it is a reasonable figure and I am going to order that your client pay the costs in the sum of £3,748.’
- ‘Even higher risk are products such as derivatives where investors put up only a small margin of the overall investment amount but are liable for the total sum should the market move against them.’
- ‘The conman asks the person contacted to contribute a small sum of money to speed up the release of the funds.’
- ‘Visiting anglers pay large sums to fish such prime salmon beats but without offering privacy, proprietors will see little return on their investments.’
- ‘Of course it also paid substantial sums to shareholders in the form of dividends and also paid rich salaries to its top executives.’
- ‘By comparison, in the US, this sum amounts to 6 percent.’
- ‘Is it right to spend vast sums of money funding expensive conferences?’
- ‘In 1997 the government paid out hefty sums to war veterans, a move that was blamed for putting a strain on the country's economy.’
- ‘The upshot was it failed to set aside sufficient sums to cover its pension guarantees, in the event that economic conditions moved dramatically against the company.’
- ‘In addition to this sum, the loan borrowings of Stoneworth are guaranteed by often-maligned Fitzwilton.’
2the sum ofThe total amount resulting from the addition of two or more numbers, amounts, or items.
‘the sum of two prime numbers’- ‘A perfect number is defined to be one which is equal to the sum of its aliquot parts.’
- ‘A more careful analysis can be given to show that the sum of this series is 23.10345, to five decimal places.’
- ‘In it Vinogradov proved that every sufficiently large odd integer can be expressed as the sum of three primes.’
- ‘Based on the evidence, it's reasonable to suppose that no whole number is the sum of more than nine cubes.’
- ‘An odd perfect number is defined to be an odd integer that is equal to the sum of its proper divisors.’
- ‘Amicable numbers come in pairs in which each number is the sum of the proper divisors of the other.’
- ‘The thesis contains a different proof of the fact just shown by Lefschetz that for any closed manifold the sum of the indices of a generic vector field is a topological invariant, namely the Euler characteristic.’
- ‘He stated that any even integer can be written as the sum of two primes and every odd integer is either a prime or the sum of three primes.’
- ‘As about 905% of the radiolabel was found in the soluble fraction, data given in the graph are the sum of both fractions.’
- ‘Fermat had asked for a cube n such that the sum of the divisors of n is a square, and a square n such that the sum of the divisors of n is a cube.’
- ‘If you win by getting rid of all of your cards, you score a bonus of 25 in addition to the sum of the points in the other players' hands.’
- ‘Are there any bases where the Fibonacci numbers with a sum of their base B digits equal to their index numbers form an infinite series?’
- ‘Using these he was able to prove a weak form of the Goldbach's conjecture showing that every number is the sum of 20 primes.’
- ‘In fact the Egyptians only had fractions of this type and if the answer had not involved a unit fraction then the Egyptians would have written the fractional part as the sum of unit fractions.’
- ‘In contrast, the sum of the reciprocals of all primes diverges.’
- ‘It dealt with the sum of integrals of a given algebraic function.’
- ‘If all three red edges get used, then the total cycle length is the sum of three even numbers, plus 3.’
- ‘He also worked on number theory proving in 1770 that every positive integer is the sum of four squares.’
- ‘Find a right triangle having the property that the hypotenuse equals the sum of one leg plus the altitude on the hypotenuse.’
- ‘This came out of an investigation he was carrying out into when a ternary quartic form could be represented as the sum of five fourth powers of linear forms.’
total, sum total, grand total, tally, aggregate, summation, grossView synonyms- 2.1 The total amount of something that exists.‘the sum of his own knowledge’
- ‘Pork and the white man seems like an arbitrary summation of the sum of evil to me, but it's their story and they were sticking to it, stridently.’
- ‘When a community of inquirers shares their information openly, the sum of their knowledge approaches the ideal of pragmatic truth.’
- ‘Tipped to tumble, Motherwell now surf the wave of just one loss in six games thanks to an unexpected capacity to maximise the sum of their unremarkable talents and convert it resolutely into a winning equation.’
- ‘The Bellini is an idea not the sum of its content.’
- ‘Wikipedia cofounder Jimmy Wales is committed to bringing the sum of all human knowledge to everybody on the planet.’
- ‘Overall stress arises when an individual believes that the demands upon them exceed their perceived personal resources to meet the sum of their challenges within a given time frame.’
- ‘The band names it The Tipping Point, based on the Malcolm Gladwell book, expecting the sum of their good work since 1987 to finally push them to their own epidemic of success.’
- ‘The worse problem, as I see it, however, is not that people don't realize that choosing the lesser evil will increase the overall sum of evil; the problem is in people routinely choosing evils that they do not recognize to be evil.’
- ‘It's because critics of homosexuality just can't see the sum of human perfection that is gayness and all its works and ways.’
- ‘A master brings the total sum of his experience, knowledge and training to his audience when he feels that the timing and expertise is in harmony with the message which he wishes to convey.’
entirety, totality, total, whole, aggregate, summation, beginning and end, alpha and omega, be-all and end-allView synonyms
3An arithmetical problem, especially at an elementary level.
- ‘Finally work out the left most sum in the same way and again place the resulting addition one place to the left under the 486.’
- ‘And the integration of numbers and simple sums adds to the overall experience of the book.’
- ‘Let's look at the sums: what level of compensation do the labels, studios and artists need to make it worthwhile?’
- ‘I need to do my sums carefully to ensure that I can afford a new property (and all the other connected costs) in the first place!’
- ‘They can go on to our website, do their sums, and they're ready to go.’
- ‘Unfortunately A level maths means that those kinds of normal sums are beyond me.’
- ‘You saw crates of certain sizes, and then you would do your sums and then do your deductions from that.’
- ‘Have you ever wondered why your children seem to do their sums upside-down nowadays?’
- ‘His philosophy of arithmetic captures little more than simple sums and differences, what is learned in elementary school.’
- ‘His first job, when he was 18, was in an insurance company, meticulously recording sums and figures.’
- ‘Inflation has fallen close to eurozone levels while the Budget sums are also pretty solid.’
- ‘Before committing to a tax-designated property investment, do your sums carefully.’
- ‘Okay, so they can do their sums, but they still need to sharpen up on their cricket.’
- ‘For some reason, they especially relate to sums and differences and multiples of 9.’
- ‘Unfortunately, bankers and investment analysts took it seriously - unable, it seems, to do simple sums.’
- ‘Dyscalculic children are born with an inability to do even the simplest sums.’
- ‘She said: ‘I still have to do my sums and see if it is still a possibility for me.’’
- ‘The reason, as the Doves found out, is simple: the sums simply don't add up for care home owners.’
- ‘By programming it yourself for about half an hour you could actually get it to multiply two single figure sums together!’
- ‘Do your sums - it was what we found most surprising when we stopped owning a car a few years ago.’
arithmetical problem, problem, calculation, reckoning, tally, questionView synonyms
verb
[WITH OBJECT]technical1Find the sum of (two or more amounts)
‘if we sum these equations we obtain X’- ‘Each item is rated on a 5-point scale, and responses are summed to produce a total self-esteem score (negatively worded items are reversed scored before summing).’
- ‘Individual items are summed to yield a total score that can range from 0 to 40, representing the degree to which an individual resembles the prototypical psychopath.’
- ‘The neighbourhood sex ratio was determined by summing the number of males and females within the distance range of a plant for all adult individuals in each plot.’
- ‘He found the length of an arc of the cycloid using an exhaustion proof based on dissections to reduce the problem to summing segments of chords of a circle which are in geometric progression.’
- ‘Each information source score was calculated by summing the number of characteristics evaluated by that information source.’
- ‘But in many real-life games, pay-offs cannot easily be quantified and summed across the states visited.’
- ‘In this addition sum each letter represents a digit, different letters being different digits.’
- ‘Functional group abundance was calculated by summing the abundances of all species in a particular group on a sample date.’
- ‘The number of pixels in the area is summed, then the amount of bone in each pixel is calculated.’
- ‘Because the axes of the color measures are orthogonal, the three scores can be summed to yield a total composite color score.’
- ‘Subjects rate agreement with statements on a Likert scale, and responses for each item are summed to arrive at a total score.’
- ‘The term on the left-hand side of Equation 7 is summed over all image distances.’
- ‘The next result follows by summing the inequalities in equation.’
- ‘The amount of total non-structural carbohydrates was calculated by summing the amount of starch and soluble sugar.’
- ‘A formula for the sum of n terms of this series can be obtained by the same method used for summing the ordinary geometric series.’
- ‘Because our survey effort was equal for each transect within a year, summing abundances over migration visits did not lead to spurious results.’
- ‘Empirically, order is easily determined by summing the exponents of each concentration term in the rate equation for a reaction.’
- ‘The sub-test results may be summed to produce a total score and the alpha coefficient reliability estimate for the sub-tests together in the present study was .66.’
- ‘Centroid size was calculated by summing the squared distances from each of the 27 landmarks to a common centroid.’
- ‘The mean proximal and distal cross-sectional area measurements for matched gracilis and semitendinosus tendon sets were summed to produce the total cross-sectional area of the four-strand grafts.’
calculate, work out, total, sum, reckon, compute, enumerate, determine, evaluate, quantify, assess, count, add up, put a figure on, tally, totalize, gaugeView synonyms- 1.1sum tono object (of two or more amounts) add up to a specified total.‘these additional probabilities must sum to 1’
- ‘They cover all 18 autosomal chromosomes, the X chromosome, and the pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome; their total length summed to 2080 cM.’
- ‘For the three years, these summed to a total of £246.485m - more than five times the amount available.’
- ‘The different states are connected by transitions with associated probabilities summing to one for the transitions leaving a given state.’
- ‘Normally trace elements which sum to a total of less than 1% of the profile are removed from the profile.’
- ‘If two numbers sum to a rational number then either both numbers are rational or both numbers are irrational.’
- ‘The transition probability matrix has some special properties namely that the rows of the probabilities sums to be 1.’
- ‘X stands for a total entropy of the galaxy that sums to zero.’
- ‘There was very little change between years in configuration and amount of suitable Henslow's Sparrow habitat, which summed to 11,500 ha during the 1997 and 1998 breeding seasons.’
- ‘The items were three-digit numbers, randomly arrayed, and the targets were those numbers whose digits summed to 14.’
Phrases
in sum
To sum up; in summary.
‘this interpretation does little, in sum, to add to our understanding’- ‘The dispute, in sum, turns on the Macedonian Orthodox Church right to be recognised as autocephalous, a status it unilaterally claimed for itself in 1967.’
- ‘In sum, the principal factors in the reduction of benefits in the coal sector were not the ones that are normally cited in dependency theory.’
- ‘So, in sum, if you like Musical Barbeque, you'll probably like this, and if you don't like Musical Barbeque, well, I'm not so sure I want you reading this blog, quite frankly.’
- ‘An attachment to your own country or nation or culture, in sum, doesn't have to be chauvinist.’
- ‘There are, in sum, no comforting conclusions to be drawn any where.’
- ‘If you believe in cultural relativism, or that crime should not be followed by punishment, or that our borders should be thrown open - in sum if you oppose traditional institutions and values - you are hardly in the mainstream.’
- ‘We feel him as an unwitting misfit, slightly apart, unaware of what affection really is: in sum, lonely.’
- ‘So in sum: yes, the blasé reaction to Wolff's article does reflect a moderating of stances on sexual harassment, but don't gloat about it; the pendulum is still very much on the left, no matter how much you might want it to be otherwise.’
- ‘In sum, rising unemployment levels are revealing the full recklessness of welfare reform.’
- ‘That, in sum, is the history of the American Church's relationship with the Holy See in the past 35 years.’
in short, briefly, in brief, to put it briefly, to cut a long story short, in a word, to sum up, in a nutshell, to come to the point, in essence, in outlineView synonyms
Phrasal Verbs
sum up
1Give a brief summary.
‘Gerard will open the debate and I will sum up’- ‘Andrew Gimson in the Telegraph sums up precisely what this means for the election.’
- ‘Lance Wright's closing remarks did not record well, so instead he agreed to sum up his points in an interview.’
- ‘A brief conclusion does a fine job summing up the book and its arguments.’
- ‘The merest flick of her perfectly-manicured hands can sum up whatever idea she is trying to express.’
- ‘Propping his bicycle outside the Cheese Shop, Henry Smith sums up the views of many in the market town.’
- ‘This comment precisely sums up what is expected of a historian when he writes down a narration or a report or a book.’
- ‘A recent book about it entitled The Lost State of Franklin sums up the fate of the movement in its title.’
- ‘The Lord Chancellor, in an outstanding speech summing up the two-day debate in the Lords, expressed the same view.’
- ‘The report sums up the first full investigation into concerns which a number of maritime organisations felt had been ignored.’
- ‘It is just that the title of this post sums up today's happenings in a very good way.’
- ‘To sum up… your record collection needs this record as much as you do.’
- ‘Although this article by Andrew Oswald appeared in the Times some time ago it sums up most of the arguments why congestion charging is a good idea.’
- ‘It was a similar thought that inspired the faint glimmer of hope expressed at the end of Arthur Koestler's own bleak summing up of the contemporary situation.’
- ‘Jack Kelly sums up nicely why the coming war is moral, necessary, and can't come too soon.’
- ‘Huntington sums up rather well the excesses that the chronic anger of the Left leads to.’
- ‘This editorial in El Pais neatly sums up what's been revealed to date.’
- ‘The benign, old Munshi sums up the topic with a short, wry remark, a telling commentary on the state of affairs.’
- ‘And those brief details sum up half a century in the life of Bobby Bell, so little is known about him.’
- ‘It's a good little story because it sums up many of the personally satisfying things about working on the edition.’
- ‘Stuart Herdson, Bradford secretary for the Association of Teachers and Lecturers, sums up the criticisms.’
summarize, give a summary of, make a summary of, precis, give an abstract of, encapsulate, outline, give an outline of, recap, recapitulate, review, put in a nutshell, condense, abridge, digest, synopsize, compress, give the gistView synonyms- 1.1(of a judge) review the evidence at the end of a case and direct the jury regarding points of law.
- ‘Judge Russell then sums up the facts and the arguments presented to the jury.’
- ‘As the learned judge said in his summing up to the jury, motive is irrelevant; intention is important.’
- ‘At the beginning of his summing up, he also directed the jury in standard terms as to the onus on the Crown.’
- ‘Perhaps if I could draw your Honours' attention to page 13 of the application book, paragraph 45, where the crucial nature of this issue was summed up by the learned trial judge.’
- ‘It was therefore rather surprising to me when His Honour Judge Denison summed up to the jury that any military use would do.’
summarize the evidence, review the evidence, give a summing-up, summarize the argumentView synonyms
sum someone/something up
Express a concise idea of the nature or character of a person or thing.
‘selfish—that summed her up’- ‘Yet the political atmosphere in this once-feisty town can be summed up in one word: indifference.’
- ‘The most common measures can be summed up in one word - ‘RICE’ which stands for rest, ice, compression and elevation.’
- ‘Predictably, Yanevski has proved to be a huge hit on the forum; the postings by most fans can be summed up in four words: ‘He is so cool!’’
- ‘Before I visited the Netherlands, all my images of this small country could be summed up in just four words which you probably have in your mind too: windmills, clogs, cheese and tulips.’
- ‘The difference between the two sides can be summed up in one word - talent.’
- ‘Today's reforms can be summed up in one word: freedom.’
- ‘However, she hopes she would be more realistic than Ranevskaya, though she likes her character, summing her up as ‘complex, vulnerable, selfish, very flawed, hopefully charming but emotionally all over the shop’.’
- ‘But the reason Indian Idol outshines any other shows of the same kind can be summed up in one word: involvement.’
- ‘Asked to describe Armenian music, Montreal singer Lousnak sums it up in a single word.’
- ‘York's attitude to young people could be summed up in two words: whipper snappers.’
- ‘Frankly, I think the biggest difference between the two can be summed up in one word: synthesizers.’
- ‘The Telegraph editorial summed it up with the words ‘Sanctimonious Claptrap’ and that is exactly what it was.’
- ‘These characteristics can be summed up as elegance, if you want just one word, but their real character is drinkability.’
- ‘When I asked him his thoughts on the subject he summed them up by describing his profession as ‘pigs at the trough’.’
- ‘The guiding doctrine which ran through his thinking is summed up by the word ‘equality’.’
- ‘In the Bible this faithfulness is summed up in the word covenant.’
- ‘In large measure, the answer can be summed up with one word: media.’
- ‘Asked to sum them up in one word, he suggests ‘pleasure-seeking’, which manifests itself in conspicuous enjoyment of food and drink and fashion, a sincere appreciation of the arts, and a relaxed attitude to sex.’
- ‘We have a few suggestions that might work and they can be summed up in one word: layering.’
- ‘The problem facing the abolitionists can be summed up in one word: sugar.’
evaluate, assess, appraise, value, rate, weigh up, gauge, judge, deem, adjudge, estimate, form an opinion of, form an impression of, make one's mind up about, get the measure of, form a judgement of, make something ofView synonyms
Origin
Middle English: via Old French from Latin summa ‘main part, sum total’, feminine of summus ‘highest’.