1An underlying substance or layer.
- ‘Cameron found Vermiforichnus clarkei in many substrates from Ordovician to Holocene ages.’
- ‘In these circumstances, erosion of the substrate leads to stripping of laminae and the generation of discontinuities within the tidal mouthbar unit.’
- ‘Where volcanic material has been extruded on to a soft substrate, the rate of erosion of the substrate can exceed that of the lava flow.’
- ‘Also, special designs of roadbed through wetlands in permafrost terrain are required to protect the thermal regime in the underlying substrates.’
- ‘The rhyolites and other large-scale blocks of gabbro and schist are interpreted as large landslides from the Caledonian nappes forming the depositional substrate and faulted margins of these basins.’
- 1.1 The surface or material on or from which an organism lives, grows, or obtains its nourishment.
- ‘We describe a simple procedure to allow the broad nature of the organic substrates used for planktonic bacterial growth to be determined.’
- ‘The premature growth arrest of breast and skin epithelial cells grown on plastic substrates may be due to an inadequate culture environment.’
- ‘A lichen may absorb certain mineral nutrients from any of these substrates on which it grows, but is generally self-reliant in feeding itself through photosynthesis in the algal cells.’
- ‘Many modern basal angiosperms grow on erosional substrates that are unlikely to be preserved in the sedimentological record.’
- ‘In the first type, plants grow on a soil substrate that has a relatively high chance of being covered with leaf litter.’
- 1.2 The substance on which an enzyme acts.
- ‘Enzymes that act on substrates such as polypeptides, nucleic acids, oligosaccharides, or lipid membranes often interact with more than one substrate molecule.’
- ‘Another approach would be to increase the cellular level of enzyme substrates such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C).’
- ‘Type O is a nonfunctional allele, because it does not recognize the enzyme substrate.’
- ‘Paired with a matching substrate, an enzyme speeds up a vital chemical reaction.’
- ‘Additionally, it has also been suggested that polygalacturonase action on the pectin network may enhance the action of other cell wall-degrading enzymes by increasing the accessibility of such enzymes to their substrates.’
- 1.3 A material which provides the surface on which something is deposited or inscribed, for example the silicon wafer used to manufacture integrated circuits.
- ‘A liquid-crystal panel comprises a pair of transparent glass substrates each being provided with an electrode.’
- ‘A trench is etched in a surface of the integrated circuit substrate such that a tip is formed.’
- ‘Fewer loosely bonded fluorine atoms in the seasoning film results in fewer contaminants being incorporated into films deposited over substrates in subsequent processing steps.’
- ‘A flat organic insulating layer is formed on a substrate provided with thin film transistors by coating and baking.’
- ‘Only on very smooth substrates like polished silicon wafers, can the thickness of deposited wax layers be measured exactly.’
Early 19th century: anglicized form of substratum.
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.