Main definitions of strain in English

: strain1strain2

strain1

verb

  • 1with object Force (a part of one's body or oneself) to make a strenuous or unusually great effort.

    ‘I stopped and listened, straining my ears for any sound’
    • ‘If you overdo it and strain yourself, you may become discouraged.’
    • ‘You kept straining yourself to hide those emotions from everyone.’
    • ‘When one strained oneself to listen to the speaker one could make out that some important male writers were speaking in generalities.’
    • ‘He cries weakly, the effort clearly straining his feeble body.’
    • ‘The fact is that he had a huge capacity for understanding the minutiae of problems without effort so he did not need to strain himself.’
    • ‘I'd seen him check it once, seeing if it was empty enough to pick up without straining himself and still full enough to make a resounding crunch and splash as the top came off.’
    • ‘He just could not understand how I could dance, straining myself.’
    • ‘‘You could clearly see that when Bette lifted Joan off the bed she was straining herself,’ said Gary.’
    • ‘She had taken a month off so she could heal without straining herself.’
    • ‘What you do need to do is give a positive impression while not straining yourself in trying to impress him/her.’
    • ‘You do not want to strain yourself walking quickly and forcing your body to pump blood faster in these temperatures.’
    • ‘But don't strain yourselves getting out of your new squad car.’
    • ‘Don't bother straining yourself thinking about it; I know it's hard for you to see past your own needs.’
    • ‘No one is straining himself; indeed, Noah is having a nap, perhaps exhausted by the very thought of the strenuous timetable drawn up for him.’
    • ‘They could do much more to help guard the West without straining themselves.’
    • ‘He must have strained himself yesterday on a long walk, or too much running around; by day's end he couldn't get up on the bed, and today he's in pain.’
    • ‘I strain myself to make each song a distinctive experience.’
    • ‘Of course I get people with pulled muscles from playing football, but it's also not unusual for me to deal with someone who has tripped up at home and strained themselves.’
    • ‘You should feel tension in your upper back but don't strain yourself.’
    • ‘Anyone who forgot to bring the radio had to stand or strain themselves to listen to the game on somebody else's radio.’
    1. 1.1no object Make a strenuous and continuous effort.
      ‘his voice was so quiet that I had to strain to hear it’
      • ‘And after straining to hear it, I realised that it sounded familiar.’
      • ‘But an outer layer of the public also surrounded him, straining to hear every word uttered by the man.’
      • ‘I sat on the bed shivering, straining to hear their conversation, but they were too far down the hall and speaking too softly anyway.’
      • ‘Rather than my having to strain to hear their words as I read, I have the pleasure of being a kind of spectator - of hearing them recite their tales, as it were.’
      • ‘Her voice was soft and low and we'd have to strain to hear her.’
      • ‘He strains to hear something recognizable, but the fog and the sea muffle everything.’
      • ‘He turned his attention to the duo at the fire, straining forward to hear…’
      • ‘Scores of people stood around in the darkened gallery straining to hear every word of the amazing, passionate reading.’
      • ‘Because I was taking notes and straining to hear what was being said on the tape, I didn't necessarily realise what was being said.’
      • ‘She lay frozen on the bed for a moment, straining to hear, above the moaning of the wind, the human sounds that she knew must be present in the room.’
      • ‘I strain to hear and then grin, resisting the temptation to say ‘eh’?’
      • ‘I can't stop myself, and I hear my voice straining, on the verge of cracking, but I can't stop that either.’
      • ‘This results in straining to hear what was asked.’
      • ‘David was jangling his change so frantically you had to strain to hear what anyone was saying.’
      • ‘She whispered so softly that Heart had to strain to hear.’
      • ‘Ryda leaned forward, straining to hear the conversation.’
      • ‘First of all, she's a mumbler, so I really have to strain to hear her.’
      • ‘Teachers who use the system feel less stressed and tired at the end of the day and their students don't have to strain to hear.’
      • ‘Be quiet and excuse me; I am straining to hear a conversation and you are making it difficult for me to catch all of it.’
      • ‘But I also tilted my head a lot, like a cat straining to hear a really weird sound.’
      struggle, labour, toil, make a supreme effort, make every effort, spare no effort, strain every nerve, try very hard, strive, break one's back, drive oneself to the limit, push oneself to the limit, do one's best
      View synonyms
    2. 1.2 Injure (a limb, muscle, or organ) by overexerting it or twisting it awkwardly.
      ‘on cold days you are more likely to strain a muscle’
      ‘glare from the screen can strain your eyes’
      • ‘Zaheer strained his muscle in the right leg this morning and was ruled out for the rest of the ongoing Test.’
      • ‘He struck out four and walked one in his first outing since June 22, when he strained his left oblique muscle.’
      • ‘But alas in practice they are usually so huge that you inevitably strain a minor muscle or two moving your arm to look at the data.’
      • ‘Britain's victory hopes took a setback during the warm-up when the penalty corner specialist Ben Hawes strained a calf muscle and was replaced by Jerome Goudie.’
      • ‘But because Gandy has favored the muscle, it has partially torn his right biceps and strained another muscle.’
      • ‘Henrik Larsson, in particular, sprung to meet a dead ball by the Englishman and seemed to strain every neck muscle as he jerked the ball goalwards and prompted Paul Gallacher to tip it over the crossbar.’
      • ‘I squealed in pain, having strained a muscle in my leg.’
      • ‘He strove so hard to rival Holding that he strained stomach muscles in the Kingston Test against England in 1981.’
      • ‘Anyway, I'm home from work this week because I've strained my muscles under my left ribs and it has only been getting worse.’
      • ‘Spring is the season for groin pulls - that is, straining the adductor muscles that run along the inside of your thighs.’
      • ‘He tore a ligament in his thumb during spring training, then strained a muscle in his side on May 31 during his first rehab stint.’
      • ‘One of the athletes was placed on the injured list after straining his left quadriceps.’
      • ‘The more common of these include spraining or tearing one or more ligaments, tearing the meniscus or straining a tendon or muscle.’
      • ‘I had somehow managed to strain a muscle in my leg while attempting to dance.’
      • ‘The Ulsterman claims to have strained a thigh muscle last week while fishing - strange but true.’
      • ‘With the flanker off, the Wallabies sensed an edge and probed a defence that had not been strengthened by the addition of Iain Balshaw after Matt Perry strained a muscle.’
      • ‘Aberfeldie last year learned the cost of attacking through one player when Minton-Connell strained his thigh muscle in the warm-up before the grand final.’
      • ‘The doc put our minds at rest and said the blood was probably from muscles being strained whilst retching but he was de-hydrated and would need to be admitted.’
      • ‘Then if you can inform and entertain the reader at the same time - without straining a muscle - all the better.’
      • ‘I need to have wheels installed on this thing, she thought, straining her arm muscles and knocking her knees against its bulk as she walked.’
      injure, hurt, damage, impair
      View synonyms
    3. 1.3 Make severe or excessive demands on.
      ‘he strained her tolerance to the limit’
      • ‘The Habsburg Monarchy was strained by the demands of different nationalities for autonomy.’
      • ‘The groundwater resources have been severely strained by over-use.’
      • ‘Fort McMurray infrastructure and services are strained by the shadow population according to a survey.’
      • ‘Treatment should not strain available resources, and most of all it should do no harm to the patient.’
      • ‘The scheme will provide 40 affordable homes and three playgrounds as well as hundreds of new neighbours who many fear will strain local resources.’
      • ‘Rapid population increases are not only straining this country's resources; they're also changing the way we live.’
      • ‘But the truce has been severely strained by nightly fighting between the two sides.’
      • ‘But it will strain its ability to pick the right locations to get that boost.’
      • ‘Adding an additional 300 does not strain our resources.’
      • ‘Of course services are strained and we have to find solutions.’
      • ‘In the era of the Internet, the efficacy of the name suppression orders was always going to be severely strained, but some online publishers took the issue seriously.’
      • ‘Exporting can strain a company's resources and staff.’
      • ‘Mpofu said the growth of Bulawayo and the current economic situation have strained resources to cope with distressed calls.’
      • ‘This strains housing stock levels for future generations.’
      • ‘Indonesia's large and growing population continues to strain national resources.’
      • ‘Relations between Chicago and Britain have been severely strained by the announcement, coming as it does weeks before an election.’
      • ‘The volume of these ethnic groups plus black migrants strained social services to the breaking point.’
      • ‘Police say their service is thoroughly strained.’
      • ‘If you need a good web-mail client that won't strain your resources, this is one you'll want to take a look at.’
      • ‘And they're straining the resources of international institutions who have responsibility for finding solutions.’
      overtax, overwork, overburden, overextend, overreach, overtask, make too many demands on, run oneself into the ground, work oneself into the ground, exert excessively, drive too far, exert to the limit, push to the limit
      View synonyms
    4. 1.4no object Pull or push forcibly at something.
      ‘the bear strained at the chain around its neck’
      ‘his stomach was swollen, straining against the thin shirt’
      • ‘But the escalation of repression requires more and more troops, and the military is already straining against the limitations of a volunteer army.’
      • ‘But Ibsen himself thought her brave and true to her exceptional self, straining against the suffocation of modern life.’
      • ‘Suddenly there is a stir and, frozen feet forgotten, binoculars are focused on a small brown blob and a man with two slim, keen dogs straining against their twin collars.’
      • ‘And then Jimjim suddenly convulsed, straining against his chains.’
      • ‘Fenix jerked, straining against the cord - he wanted to murder the man!’
      • ‘Mack stopped straining against his grip, and relaxed.’
      • ‘Slowly her chin dropped to her chest as she put all the physical power she could into steadily straining against the ropes looped around her wrists and ankles.’
      • ‘They fell into the bed, straining against each other.’
      • ‘It uses the pressure points on the shih-tzu's nose and head to apply pressure which stops the shih-tzu from pulling, jumping and straining against the leash.’
      • ‘He pulls her back towards him, straining against her.’
      • ‘One newspaper's letter bag strained at the seams with an unprecedented flood of missives from angry readers.’
      • ‘Nika stood up as her captive yanked and strained at the glittering strand that leashed her, shoulders bunching and teeth bared.’
      • ‘‘Get on the ship,’ she replied, her voice straining against the wind and rain.’
      • ‘The family dog Jasper, a brown spotted Dalmatian, strained at his lead as master and family passed by.’
      • ‘No matter how he twisted and pulled, straining against the straps, he could not free himself.’
      • ‘Suddenly the beam was withdrawn and Cecil, who had been straining against it, overbalanced and fell flat on his face onto the now icy cold carpeting.’
      • ‘My somewhat rusty culinary skills creaked and groaned like a wooden ship straining against high winds.’
      • ‘The whole sled shook as they strained at the traces.’
      • ‘The waves pounded the ship and the crew strained at the pumps, but it seemed a hopeless task.’
      • ‘The doomed tanker was hauled out to sea by tugs straining against the winds and tide.’
      pull, tug, heave, haul, jerk
      View synonyms
    5. 1.5 Stretch (something) tightly.
      ‘the barbed wire fence was strained to posts six feet high’
      • ‘It originally used as transmitting antenna a cage aerial, which was strained between two 60 meters tall wood towers.’
      • ‘During these works transmitting took place with the help of an antenna which was strained between the other tower and a small wood mast.’
      • ‘For the most part the structure is strained tightly together, and decorated, by spidery cross braces.’
    6. 1.6archaic Embrace (someone) tightly.
      ‘she strained the infant to her bosom again’
      • ‘When she blinked, she saw the boy fall down and the mother straining him and beating at him.’
      • ‘I felt his arms straining me, could hear his laughter near me, could smell his stench.’
  • 2with object Pour (a mainly liquid substance) through a porous or perforated device or material in order to separate out any solid matter.

    ‘strain the custard into a bowl’
    • ‘Remove and set aside for 10 minutes, then strain the oil and combine with the remaining olive oil; discard the garlic.’
    • ‘Soak tamarind in 1 ½ cups of water, squeeze well and strain the juice.’
    • ‘To finish, strain the infused milk into a clean saucepan, add the breadcrumbs and whisk over a medium heat for two to three minutes until thickened.’
    • ‘Slowly strain the butter through a fine sieve into a clean pan, leaving the sediment behind.’
    • ‘Remove from the heat and strain the mixture through a fine mesh sieve into a bowl.’
    • ‘I experimented with reducing leftover dried clay scraps to the consistency of slip and strained the mixture to remove lumps.’
    • ‘This process is repeated one more time before the mixture is strained through an empty cotton bag to remove the husks.’
    • ‘In the morning of Day 6, I strained the wine into a pan for the final step: mixing in honey and vodka.’
    • ‘After the third and final straining the ale should be ready to drink.’
    • ‘Line a colander or sieve with a couple of layers of cheesecloth and strain the soup.’
    • ‘The milk is then strained and the grains recovered for reuse.’
    • ‘I strained the cream and milk mixture to get rid of the twigs - but reincorporated some of the zest and thyme leaves - and beat it into the eggs and sugar.’
    • ‘Then let it cool and strain the mixture through cheesecloth.’
    • ‘Then strain the cloudy water from the rice - this removes most of the starch.’
    • ‘Wood-grain areas of the car can be polished with a mixture of equal parts strained lemon juice and olive oil.’
    • ‘Once the concentration is strong, strain the mixture, then place strips of paper in the water and simmer until most of the water is evaporated.’
    • ‘Binding glutens were added, and the mixture was strained through a large-holed colander into boiling water.’
    • ‘Drain in a colander set over a bowl, then shell the mussels before straining the juice carefully through a double muslin or chinois.’
    • ‘Simmer for 10 minutes, leave to cool and then strain the mixture through a sieve into a large jug.’
    • ‘Remove from the heat and leave to cool, then strain the stock through a fine sieve, reserving the ham hock on one side.’
    1. 2.1 Cause liquid to drain off (food that has been boiled, soaked, or canned) by pouring through a perforated device.
      • ‘Remove from the heat and serve as it is or strain the leaves and potato into a food processor.’
      • ‘Mix some strained papaya human baby food with this, but omit adding additional vitamins or minerals.’
      • ‘Add almost all of the remaining berries and strain the fruit, keeping all the juices.’
      • ‘To get really thick yoghurt, the consistency of cream cheese, I strain the set stuff by pouring it into a piece of muslin and hanging it from a rod suspended over the sink.’
      • ‘For instance, canned chicken and tuna can be strained to remove a significant amount of sodium.’
      • ‘With a piece of netting they strained the rice into buckets while I held the torch.’
      • ‘The malt is then boiled, strained, and incubated with yeast.’
      • ‘That evening, as she took the rice gruel to the cowshed after straining the cooked rice, she screamed out in terror.’
      • ‘Simmer for five minutes, then remove from heat and strain all ingredients.’
      • ‘The leaves of the elder can also be boiled and strained to make an insecticidal spray.’
      • ‘These plates are used to strain food from the water.’
      • ‘The first wax to be used was animal fat which was boiled and strained till it turned to tallow and then had scents added to it to disguise the smell.’
      • ‘Right whales are large baleen whales, meaning that instead of teeth they have bonelike plates, which they use to strain food from large gulps of water.’
      • ‘Now granny decided that we should not get either hives or boils so in the early spring we had to go and get some young nettles which she then boiled and strained.’
      • ‘The coconut is grated, strained and boiled to extract its oil.’
      • ‘When you're ready to start cooking, strain the beef, reserving the marinade and the other ingredients.’
      • ‘If excess water remains after cooking, strain the grains.’
      sieve, sift, filter, screen, riddle, separate
      View synonyms
    2. 2.2 Drain off (liquid) by straining.
      ‘strain off the surplus fat’
      • ‘Then strain the liquid into the sink, leaving the vermouth-flavored ice in the shaker.’
      • ‘It is at this point that you would want to strain off the residual liquid.’
      • ‘After about three weeks strain off the liquid and water it around the roots of the plants.’
      • ‘First thing they had seen on arriving at the base of the rock was a partly crumbled brick wall and beside it a clay water pot with a piece of old yellow robe used to strain the water.’
      • ‘After two hours, carefully strain the oil by using unbleached muslin (usually available at fabric stores).’
      • ‘Peel a medium cucumber, purée it in your blender for 10 seconds, and strain the water out.’
      • ‘Follow the instructions given above, but the plant will grow so every third time you strain off the liquid, give away or throw away half the plant.’
      • ‘Add seasoning and simmer on a low heat with a tight fitting lid to create a rich stock. Once the stock is ready, strain the liquid off and set aside.’
      • ‘This is the most successful part of the recipe. You strain the mussel liquid into a bowl, wipe out your pot, then re-add the liquid and bring it to a boil.’
      • ‘Let the water stand overnight, then strain the liquid into a spray bottle.’
      sieve, sift, filter, screen, riddle, separate
      View synonyms

noun

  • 1A force tending to pull or stretch something to an extreme or damaging degree.

    ‘the usual type of chair puts an enormous strain on the spine’
    ‘aluminum may bend under strain’
    • ‘Skiing put a big strain on my body, but he got me to do way more than I thought I could do.’
    • ‘This structure enables the high extensibility of elastic fibers to be exploited but protects them from damage at high strains.’
    • ‘In the sensors, small acoustic vibrations or environmental strains induce frequency and intensity modulations.’
    • ‘Stress is defined as a condition that puts a physical strain on the body.’
    • ‘Essentially, it was a term used in engineering to describe the effect of a mechanical force that placed strain or pressure on an object.’
    • ‘In addition to the pull of Jupiter's gravity, Io also feels the strain from the gravitational fields of Jupiter's other large moons.’
    • ‘Just by holding the clutch down I could see how hard it is to hold the car; I can imagine how hard it would be to hold the car when the car is under the strain of the centrifugal loading.’
    • ‘His legs were so thin however that Catherad was sure that they would snap under the enormous strain.’
    • ‘Repetitive strain injuries are examined with a look at alternative treatments.’
    • ‘Women are healthy when they're pregnant when they're young but at our age that's too much of a strain on our body and leaves us open to a host of diseases.’
    • ‘The strain of the horse pulling on his mouth and gums was painful, but he ignored it.’
    • ‘The back analysis of the results of measuring the distribution of strains and forces along the anchor was done in order to optimise the choice of anchor zone length.’
    • ‘The results are consistent with the predictions of continuum elasticity theory for the strain of a point source subject to an applied force.’
    • ‘It appears that the strain on his body was too much, and that restricting himself to one day games was all he had the strength and fitness to do.’
    • ‘The wind filled the sails and the ropes creaked and stretched with the strain as the ship ploughed through the waves splashing the surf at her bows and leaving a white trail behind.’
    • ‘What is the impact of stresses and strains from external forces on our practice field?’
    • ‘The big question is how long his ageing body can stand the strain.’
    • ‘Repetitive strain injuries are thought to be the result of tasks such as typing or even picking up the phone repeatedly.’
    • ‘The walls were bending as much as they could, but it was an enormous strain on them nonetheless.’
    • ‘The structure of the ligamenta flava enables them to be stretched to high strains without damage.’
    tension, tightness, tautness, shear, distension
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1 An injury to a part of the body caused by overexertion or twisting a muscle awkwardly.
      ‘he has a slight groin strain’
      • ‘Carey is troubled with a calf injury, while O'Hara has a groin strain.’
      • ‘Yoga students who push themselves too far without proper supervision risk suffering painful injuries and strains.’
      • ‘Chronic knee injuries include things like strains, sprains and tendinitis.’
      • ‘A broad range of injury types was found to occur at each of these sites, except in the groin, for which the 12 injuries reported were exclusively strains.’
      • ‘A recent study concluded that maintaining constant glycine levels might prevent sports injuries such as muscle strains and sprains.’
      • ‘In addition to testing for any strains and other injuries it is therefore crucial to assess for any changes, and their causes, in the somatic tissues.’
      • ‘Durcan has a groin strain, while Brehony is troubled by a hamstring injury.’
      • ‘Neck injuries or strains often result in painful inflammation.’
      • ‘Hayes missed the victory over Thornhill with a hamstring strain but the injury has been responding to treatment.’
      • ‘Repetitive strain injury occurs when the movable parts of the limbs are injured.’
      • ‘One by one, they staggered to the podium, like footballers with groin strains.’
      • ‘The most common types of sports injuries are sprains and strains.’
      • ‘Two years ago he played on with a groin strain, ended up with a hernia and missed out on the Ashes tour.’
      • ‘‘During the game I got a groin strain and I've never really recovered,’ he explained.’
      • ‘The new automobile insurance system includes a limit of $4,000 on pain and suffering awards for a minor injury such as a strain, sprain or minor whiplash.’
      • ‘The majority of injuries in a primary care setting are soft tissue injuries (sprains, strains, and contusions).’
      • ‘Last year he struggled with groin strains for most of the year and was never operating at full fitness.’
      • ‘The most common snow injuries are strains, sprains and fractures.’
      • ‘Hours of peak time are cleared to discuss groin strains.’
      • ‘We will have to see whether it's just a groin strain or a hernia.’
    2. 1.2Physics The magnitude of a deformation, equal to the change in the dimension of a deformed object divided by its original dimension.
      • ‘The c-maximum fabric normal to foliation is typical of calcite rocks deformed experimentally to high strains in simple shear.’
      • ‘Two possible causes have been argued to explain this feature for limestone deformed to high shear strains.’
      • ‘In this paper we present new quantitative data on strain, deformation temperatures and vorticity of flow at the top of the Greater Himalayan Slab.’
      • ‘At relatively low shear strains, deformation is apparent from the slight deformation of strain markers, such as the overturning of ice-wedge casts.’
      • ‘This is achieved by choosing a material with a large elastic modulus, a low density and a large value of the maximum allowable strain before permanent deformation occurs.’
  • 2A severe or excessive demand on the strength, resources, or abilities of someone or something.

    ‘the accusations put a strain on relations between the two countries’
    ‘she's obviously under considerable strain’
    • ‘This was round-the-clock flying and it put a strain on the maintenance crews.’
    • ‘I can't keep my mind focused for hour after hour and my body won't take the strain for so long, either.’
    • ‘The resultant dengue outbreaks place severe strains on public hospitals, with wards filled to overflowing with patients.’
    • ‘Just casting it once can be a real strain on the body.’
    • ‘This modification, while it suits the owner perfectly, put a strain on my ability to shoot small 25 yard groups.’
    • ‘It is this population boom that has put a strain on the land resource in Zambia creating a breeding ground for desertification.’
    • ‘The Federation for American Immigration Reform says the increase has put a strain on city and state budgets.’
    • ‘This has put a strain on our long-distant communication.’
    • ‘Weight lifting places great strains on both body and mind.’
    • ‘Negative self-talk puts a tremendous strain on both the body and self-esteem.’
    • ‘The city has had to find alternative accommodation for those rendered homeless by the process, thus putting a further strain on its already stretched budget.’
    • ‘By contrast my legs - while not being exactly underdeveloped - are not accustomed to taking the strain of my upper body without locking at the knees for extra support.’
    • ‘The physical strain on Jones' body was incredible.’
    • ‘Downturn in the fertiliser market coupled with rising production costs and wet weather has put a strain on the industry.’
    • ‘Overweight and obese people are at far greater risk of a number of illnesses, including diabetes and heart disease, and an ever fatter population will put a strain on healthcare resources.’
    • ‘A source insisted there was a 25 per cent turnout of estate police on Friday and noted that this had put a strain on their on-duty colleagues.’
    • ‘Though the two part ways, marry and have children, they eventually start meeting again, and their relationship starts to put a strain on their lives.’
    • ‘Even with plans to import labour from neighbouring countries, Government's plans will continue to put a strain on already stretched resources.’
    • ‘Because Zak can't swallow he needs his teeth cleaning under anaesthetic every six months but doctors fear the procedures are starting to put a strain on his weak chest.’
    • ‘‘I thought you said that it put a terrible strain on your body,’ Shadia said.’
    pressure, demands, burdens, exertions
    View synonyms
    1. 2.1 A state of tension or exhaustion resulting from severe demands on one's strength or resources.
      ‘the telltale signs of nervous strain’
      • ‘Moreover, these protectionist initiatives have surfaced at a time when the global trading system is already under severe strain.’
      • ‘The opening night performance showed signs of strain as Doyle flubbed some lines, performance energy dipped and Scottish accents slipped in and out of authentic focus.’
      • ‘Social factors, such as affluence and population growth, add further demand and strain on recreation opportunities.’
      • ‘Exhaustion, strain and tension are what hit you.’
      • ‘Recently McGregor's relationship with the press has also shown signs of strain.’
      • ‘But the fighting began last week without that help, and several days into the war, the amity between the two nations is under severe strain.’
      • ‘She asked quietly, her dirt and coal smudged face showed signs of strain and fatigue where it wasn't hidden by darkness.’
      • ‘‘Mental strain is a lot lower in a marriage,’ says Oswald.’
      • ‘As the first week passed by so did some strain and tension on the couple's relationship.’
      • ‘All of these common heritage resources are under tremendous strain as corporations seek to privatize and commodify them.’
      • ‘I think everyone I know is suffering from that mental strain.’
      • ‘Many marriages today are experiencing severe strain but that does not mean that the only solution is to eventually put an end to it by resorting to divorce.’
      • ‘The release of the body from the tension and strain of work may be understood as a natural physical response to fatigue.’
      • ‘But what she has put under severe strain is the exchange of intelligence between the US and the UK on which the joint war against terrorism depends.’
      • ‘Souness's relationship with Yorke has shown clear signs of strain during recent weeks, prompting speculation linking the former Manchester United star with a move to Wolves.’
      • ‘The national association was under severe strain last year.’
      • ‘The social fabric is already showing signs of strain.’
      • ‘This constant state of alert places high tension and strain on staff.’
      • ‘But when both are focused on taking, then the dynamic is pulling in opposite directions - creating strain and tension.’
      • ‘A report carried out at University College Dublin has found that a quarter of primary teachers have fatigue and strain caused by voice problems.’
      stress, tension, nervous tension, anxiety
      View synonyms
  • 3usually strainsThe sound of a piece of music as it is played or performed.

    ‘through the open windows came the strains of a hurdy-gurdy playing in the street’
    • ‘Haunting strains of ethereal music introduced stunningly bright, clear, and artistic opening credits.’
    • ‘With women taking part in all branches of war work, to the front came the cowgirls riding to the strains of martial music, the American flag held high, and the show is on!’
    • ‘At the first strains of music, children scurried towards the makeshift theatre - a podium surrounded by steel poles draped with black cloth to make a dramatic backdrop.’
    • ‘The hum of chattering voices floated through the still air, accompanied by the faint strains of music.’
    • ‘The air is moist and moss-scented, and you slide your fingers along the slick castle stones as you're pulled by faint strains of music that sound vaguely familiar.’
    • ‘Once the first strains of piped music had swept over me, it was as if we had never been away.’
    • ‘Just a few yards away from the mahal, the strains of Carnatic music emanate from a small shrine.’
    • ‘I hated the voice from behind me, that cut through the wondrous strains of music being wafted to us in that green and prosperous neighbourhood through powerful speakers.’
    • ‘Somewhere musicians were still rehearsing for later, and the vague strains of music allowed him to make such a move without any culpability.’
    • ‘Inside, we're surrounded by leather and walnut and soft strains of classical music.’
    • ‘Their sound has expanded from the punk-rock base to include Celtic and country-and-western strains and contemporary dance music.’
    • ‘A fan turns slowly overhead, keeping time with the strains of Latino music.’
    • ‘She stopped complaining when she heard the first strains of classical music.’
    • ‘In the Kiev Sports Palace gymnasium I watched Larissa go through her paces to the strains of music by Tchaikovsky.’
    • ‘This last sequence was accompanied by the heartrending strains of Pablo Casals playing a Spanish folk song on the cello.’
    • ‘While there are only a few strains of music throughout the game, such as the familiar success theme when a mission has been completed, the ambient sound effects truly shine in this game.’
    • ‘The strains of music played, the words came up, and we cheered as one.’
    • ‘In the background, strains of Latin music blend with sounds of sizzling from the kitchen to create an uplifting, cheerful atmosphere.’
    • ‘Baraka here is particularly interested in the differing timbres or tones that the two strains of music produced.’
    • ‘Take to the countryside to enjoy the soothing strains of classical music at this highbrow summer fest.’
    • ‘By then, they had already reached the auditorium, and strains of beautiful piano music wafted to their ears.’
    sound, music
    View synonyms

Phrases

  • at (full) strain

    • archaic Using the utmost effort.

      • ‘Operating an actuator of stack height at half its potential strain, compared to operating a stack of height at full strain, reduces power consumption by 50%.’
      • ‘The manager finds himself on-board a 24-foot boat, careening into a wave-whipping southeast wind, sailing full strain.’
      • ‘Recovery of stored electrochemical energy should enable moderate efficiencies to be achieved even at full strain.’
  • strain every nerve

    • Make every possible effort.

      • ‘I can remember as Education Minister over thirty years ago, asking my Department to strain every nerve to find qualified Aboriginals who could teach Aboriginals in schools throughout the Northern Territory.’
      • ‘He that will not respond to its accents, and strain every nerve to carry into effect its provisions, is unworthy of the name of free man.’
      • ‘Their absence is adequately compensated by men and women, who strain every nerve to attract the attention of the audience.’
      • ‘The organisers and the office-bearers have strained every nerve possible to make the tournament a resounding success.’
      • ‘She smiled bravely, straining every nerve within her, to hold back the grief she felt growing inside.’
      • ‘I shall hope against hope, I shall strain every nerve to achieve an honourable settlement for my country if I can do so without having to put the millions of my countrymen and countrywomen and even children through this ordeal of fire.’
      • ‘A high operations tempo means that generals, understandably, strain every nerve to keep frontline units manned with the best people - even if that scants the educational system of teachers and top students.’
      • ‘Even at this late stage we want to strain every nerve to avoid military action.’
      • ‘Here I was straining every nerve and muscle to follow the ideal of celibacy, while the most highly regarded proponents of the path couldn't hack it themselves!’
      • ‘And thus he was sure that if he strained every nerve to feel calm, she would also feel this sense of calm.’
      struggle, labour, toil, make a supreme effort, make every effort, spare no effort, strain every nerve, try very hard, strive, break one's back, drive oneself to the limit, push oneself to the limit, do one's best
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  • strain at the leash

    • Be eager to begin or do something.

      • ‘I'm straining at the leash to find out the final release date so that I can test the new portal site.’
      • ‘Openly I have been able to do this for the most part, but inwardly I have often strained at the leash.’
      • ‘The creative energies and the entrepreneurial spirit of the Indian people was straining at the leash.’
      • ‘You may think of soldiers as gung-ho types who strained at the leash last year to invade.’
      • ‘They are straining at the leash though, and would give anything to be allowed to go up for a crack at them.’
      • ‘Great Britain did not actively strain at the leash to build and rule and empire, but let the responsibilities and territories of the British Empire develop in a free market manner.’
      • ‘In the United States, when the corporate-owned media sense profits, they strain at the leash to sell the line better.’
      • ‘I have customers straining at the leash to include mobile content in their offerings to their customers.’
      • ‘And perhaps the sight of their older married brothers straining at the leash is giving them pause.’
      • ‘It was to get to that unheard of city I'd agitated and strained at the leash of Albany Park.’
      eager, impatient, anxious, enthusiastic
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Origin

Middle English (as a verb): from Old French estreindre, from Latin stringere ‘draw tight’. Current senses of the noun arose in the mid 16th century.

Pronunciation

strain

/strān//streɪn/

Main definitions of strain in English

: strain1strain2

strain2

noun

  • 1A breed, stock, or variety of an animal or plant developed by breeding.

    • ‘If the wild relatives of our crop plants die out, we might lose the genes that could be used to breed new pest-resistant strains.’
    • ‘All of the taiep rats were the products of a mutant strain bred by our laboratory.’
    • ‘After finding a Thai strain of the Gyrant plant in the jungle, he bred it twice then crossbred it with a variant from China.’
    • ‘Had the inhabitants bred a strain of non - drinking animals?’
    • ‘Next, they bred two strains of a monogamous species, the prairie vole - one with a long version of the microsatellites and the other with a short version.’
    • ‘Commercial livestock are generally produced by crossing breeds, strains, or lines.’
    • ‘This was a mongrel breed incorporating strains of Labrador, Greyhound, anything that could advance the genes of endurance and pulling power.’
    • ‘It remains a major agricultural problem, especially for potato farmers who have been breeding resistant strains.’
    • ‘Most of their plants have been grown from seed strains carefully bred for high-quality flowers.’
    • ‘Individual species are also becoming standardized, experts say, with cultivated strains of animals and plants ousting local varieties.’
    • ‘In fact, some of the plant strains, like sorghum, have been in stock since the 1940s.’
    • ‘A survey of 13 domestic breeds and 3 inbred strains was carried out.’
    • ‘They also worry that genetically altered plants could escape into wild strains or breed new diseases with disastrous environmental effects.’
    • ‘Scientists in Edinburgh have bred two strains of mice with differences of around 30% in their metabolism.’
    • ‘What sorts of new plant strains are succeeding?’
    • ‘It opted for quick-cooking, high-yielding grains, while the East bred its strains for taste and texture.’
    • ‘You can even keep them in suspended animation in the freezer for years at a time, allowing you to preserve stocks of different strains of the animal.’
    • ‘Male chicks from selectively bred egg-laying strains are not suitable for meat production and so are killed at one to three days old.’
    • ‘Australia has been trying to breed better strains of plants and animals for ever.’
    • ‘At that time a number of dogs of various sizes, shapes and abilities were used for herding sheep in Germany, but no one had been able to merge those strains into a uniform breed.’
    variety, kind, type, sort
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1 A natural or cultured variety of a microorganism with a distinct form, biochemistry, or virulence.
      • ‘How, for instance, could we train scientists to fight the virulent new strains of bacteria that have evolved resistance to potent antibiotics?’
      • ‘Avirulent bacterial strains can, in principle, also cause infections.’
      • ‘Rad6 is important for DNA damage responses and strains with rad6 mutations are sensitive to UV irradiation.’
      • ‘Prevnar protects against seven strains of Streptococcus pneumonia bacteria.’
      • ‘Raccoons and striped skunks tell the story of scientists using DNA to track down distinct strains of the rabies virus.’
      • ‘Last year, an estimated 240 people died from the most severe strain of the superbug, which occurs when the infection enters the bloodstream.’
      • ‘So the common cold you get every year is the result of successful adaptation by those strains which had some survival advantage over the strains that your body was able to combat last year.’
      • ‘Bacterial and T4 strains and culture conditions have been described.’
      • ‘Second, a mutation causing a switch in resource specialization allows one strain to sweep away its competitor.’
      • ‘As we did not serotype these pneumococcal strains or measure antibodies to them, we cannot do more than speculate on the mechanism for this observation.’
      • ‘Modified Herpes virus strains have already been used to treat brain tumours successfully in mice.’
      • ‘The challenge lies in being able to distinguish different serotypes, or strains, of the virus.’
      • ‘When she went to hospital to have the wound examined she was informed that she was infected with a strain of staph bacteria, similar to the MRSA superbug.’
      • ‘The anti-viral drugs would not offer a cure but could reduce the severity of symptoms although their precise use cannot be assessed until the precise flu strain is identified.’
      • ‘Lesprit and coworkers investigated the impact of this system by comparing the virulence of two bacterial strains in a rat model of acute pneumonia.’
      • ‘To finish the project in time the pace of work intensified, and more and more virus strains were cultured.’
      • ‘There are four distinct but related strains of the dengue virus.’
      • ‘In a new study, researchers show that special viruses are the culprits behind the emergence of virulent select new bacterial strains.’
      • ‘Some, like the influenza virus, are occasionally transmitted to people via contact with birds or other animals harboring new strains.’
      • ‘Normally HIV can take up to 10 years before it develops into Aids, but the new strain damages the immune system at a far greater rate, so it becomes Aids within a couple of months.’
    2. 1.2 A variety of a particular abstract thing.
      ‘a strain of music that has a direct lineage to folk song’
      • ‘During the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, the advent of the machine age helped create powerful new strains of utopian art.’
      • ‘The artist tries to pull off the trick of synthesizing these two strains into something characteristic, first of himself and second of his milieu.’
      • ‘Modern life breeds a strain of different problems than our grandparents were used to.’
      • ‘There is a strain of feminism that encourages women to behave as if we have arrived in some feminist Utopia where rape is impossible.’
      • ‘There's a strain of feminism that comes out of the women's health movement of the seventies that is deeply suspicious of reproductive technology.’
      • ‘The synthetic pulling together of disparate strains of thought that characterizes American Studies has also proved invaluable.’
      • ‘There has always been a strain in Conservative thinking, the Little Englander or isolationist tendency, that has been deeply suspicious of foreign intervention.’
      • ‘The Ukrainian state and most strains of Ukrainian nationalism are a product of the last 100 years.’
      • ‘Regional folklore, traditional music, and a powerful strain of evangelical Protestantism all helped shape this legacy.’
      • ‘Hitchens' pro-war argument is fueled by a powerful strain of anti-clericalism.’
      • ‘What about the strain of radical feminism in the current government and the attitudes they create?’
      element, strand, streak, vein, note, trace, touch, dash, tinge, suggestion, hint, suspicion
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  • 2A particular tendency as part of a person's character.

    ‘there's a strain of Victorian rectitude in him’
    • ‘The gays return the affection with an unexpected strain of patriotism and traditionalism.’
    • ‘Tense, haunted and melancholy, the composer's dark vision was only relieved by a mordant strain of humour.’
    • ‘I know you guys are expecting something in my usual strain of strange humour.’
    • ‘Many footballing traits have nothing to do with people's real psychology, but in this case it does seem to me that a strain of caution in the Italian character comes out in this aspect of how they play footy.’
    • ‘These are two warring but important strains to the national character, at tension with each other.’
    • ‘Though not slapstick or of the knee-slapping variety, Hamer is droll and often wickedly subtle in his deadly strain of humour.’
    • ‘Wax developed her deadly strain of humour at 16, partly to ‘equalise the pressure’ from home and partly to win popularity at school.’
    tendency to, susceptibility to, propensity to, proneness to, proclivity to, inclination to
    View synonyms

Origin

Old English strīon ‘acquisition, gain’, of Germanic origin; related to Latin struere ‘to build up’.

Pronunciation

strain

/streɪn//strān/