(from the 15th century to the late 18th century) the chief magistrate of the United Provinces of the Netherlands.
- ‘The second phase began when disorder among the Spanish emboldened all the provinces to proclaim William their stadtholder, neatly reaffirming his imperial title while underlining their relative independence.’
- ‘The final Anglo-Dutch conflict ended in 1674, ushering in a peaceful period that was reinforced when Mary, the English Catholic daughter of James II, married her Protestant cousin Williams ill of Orange, stadtholder of the Netherlands.’
- ‘Sarah persuaded Anne to support brother-in-law William of Orange, Protestant stadholder of the Netherlands, when he overthrew James II in 1688.’
- ‘First, it was a republic with a stadholder as head of state, not a monarchy or empire like almost everywhere else.’
- ‘William's eldest son Philip William was loyal to Spain so it was Maurits who was appointed stadholder of Holland and Zeeland, or the United Provinces of the Netherlands, in 1584.’
Mid 16th century: from Dutch stadhouder ‘deputy’, from stad ‘place’ + houder ‘holder’, translating medieval Latin locum tenens.
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.