The brown caterpillar of a small North American moth which is a serious pest of spruce and other conifers.
- ‘Without these insect eaters, there would likely be more severe outbreaks of spruce budworms, which could devastate both commercially and recreationally important forests throughout the northern Midwest.’
- ‘With respect to the use of naturally occurring insect viruses to control the spruce budworm, there are also risks.’
- ‘In a 1940 report, he drew attention to the damaging effect of the spruce budworm in the Miramichi region during the epidemic of the 1920s.’
- ‘In New Brunswick, the spraying of the spruce budworm began in 1952 as a short-term containment strategy.’
- ‘Trees killed by the spruce budworm die standing and remain that way until they break near the base of the trunk due to root and trunk rots.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.