A reddish disk-shaped gall that forms on the undersides of oak leaves in response to the developing larva of a gall wasp. It results from eggs laid in the summer and alternates with the currant gall.
- ‘In autumn flat spangle galls form on the back of leaves, the leaves fall and females emerge next spring.’
- ‘Parasitic wasps lay their eggs in leaves, twigs and buds causing galls such as the spangle gall and oak apple.’
- ‘Numbers of spangle galls decreased in larger tree populations possibly due to larger numbers of insect parasitoids.’
- ‘Oak spangle galls are cup shaped and are also produced by a gall wasp.’
- ‘I've seen few oak galls, especially the various spangle galls, though Knopper Galls have still been fairly common around London.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.