One of the mysteries of the English language finally explained.
verb[WITH OBJECT]often as noun smelting
1Extract (metal) from its ore by a process involving heating and melting.‘tin smelting’
melting, smelting, dissolving, dissolution, liquefactionView synonyms
- ‘In turn, when Longdale's owner, William Firmstone smelted his first pig iron at Lucy Selina Furnace with this coke, he turned out the first iron ever produced in Virginia with this fuel.’
- ‘Through a back door, Jinx could see a small clearing, the middle of which was clear of snow surrounding a pit in the ground - evidently Rob's metalworking needs could be addressed by smelting metal in an earth-pit.’
- ‘Iron was smelted, converted to steel, and subsequently rolled or forged to meet the demands of both domestic and international industrial markets.’
- ‘In most of the world other than the U.S., rotary furnaces (long, short, and top blown) have replaced blast furnaces as the major smelting vessels for lead recycling.’
- ‘It was more difficult to use coal where higher temperatures were needed to smelt metals, for the fuel came into contact with the ores and introduced impurities.’
- ‘Without charcoal we wouldn't have been able to smelt the metals that helped transform early man into the technological man we are today.’
- ‘The deforestation was especially expensive to the Norse Greenlanders because they required charcoal in order to smelt iron to extract iron from bogs.’
- ‘Now a researcher is to test his theory that rural Ryedale could have become one of the great industrial centres of the North by re-creating a medieval iron smelting furnace at Rievaulx Abbey, near Helmsley.’
- ‘Belonging to a more elite corps, they promoted the railway by actively participating in the modernisation of the steel industry, creating English-style forges and a renaissance in smelting furnaces.’
- ‘Over two millennia these Mesopotamian cities developed the art of copper smelting, alloying bronze and, most importantly, writing.’
- ‘More recently, archaeological discoveries have documented the Incas' extensive efforts to mine silver ore and extract the precious metal in smelting operations.’
- ‘Local metallurgy evolved into bigger factories and British technology, including English smelting furnaces and imported coal, was used intensively.’
- ‘The Bangka and Belitung regency governments have invited private investors to set up smelting facilities to process tin ore into tin metal, which would help increase the price of tin in the international market.’
- ‘The concentrates are refined by smelting - they are melted, and the impurities are removed as a slag.’
- ‘Since charcoal was traditionally used to smelt iron from its ore, some carbon was always incorporated into the metallic product by chance.’
- ‘Bricks have always been used for years by the construction industry, and for lining of ore smelting furnaces.’
- ‘Ventilation of the spaces on the south end, where gold and silver were smelted, apparently had turned out to be inadequate; the third floor was designed to correct that problem.’
- ‘Once upon a time, long, long ago, the tribal craftsmen of India knew how to smelt iron of such purity that it never rusted.’
- ‘‘This very important site is one of only a handful of water-powered iron smelting furnaces in the country,’ said John Hodgson, LDNPA senior archaeologist.’
- ‘The Coalbrookdale Company had smelted its last iron in the area by 1821, and that year had dismantled the Resolution steam engine that pumped water up the dale to power the furnace bellows.’
- 1.1 Extract a metal from (ore) by smelting.
- ‘At Swansea, the ore was smelted using huge quantities of cheap coal, producing a poisoned landscape.’
- ‘More than thirty-four years after its discovery some sixty miners were employed raising the ore while above ground thousands of tons of old tailigs and ore were smelted.’
- ‘To make smalt, cobalt ore is smelted, and the resulting cobalt oxide poured into molten glass.’
- ‘They were made by the labour of men who won iron ore and coal; who turned the coal into coke; who smelted the ore; who fashioned the crude ingots of metal into engines; and so on.’
- ‘The simple explanation is that modern production techniques of smelting ore and manufacturing copper, brass, and iron for commercial use remove impurities.’
Mid 16th century: from Middle Dutch, Middle Low German smelten; related to the verb melt.
- past and past participle of smell
A small silvery fish which lives in both marine and fresh water and is sometimes fished commercially.
- ‘And if you're really lucky, they'll have pristine fried smelts to offer: tender sardine-size fish, split down the middle and gorgeously fried.’
- ‘Larger salmon eat a variety of fishes such as herring and alewives, smelts, capelin, small mackerel, sand lace, and small cod.’
- ‘You can find whole fresh smelts at the market, and you typically cook them whole.’
- ‘The Brown Pelican's diet consists almost entirely of fish such as smelt and anchovies.’
- ‘Baits are normally small smelts, sardines or roach.’
Old English; obscurely related to various European names of fish; compare with smolt.
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