The refraction of elastic waves on passing between bodies of rock having different seismic velocities.
- ‘It extends upwards from a depth of about 6 km, at which depth Precambrian crystalline basement is predicted from seismic refraction studies.’
- ‘However, a number of seismic packages are recognizable in the offshore Palaeozoic succession and in some cases correlate with velocity units identified by seismic refraction surveys.’
- ‘Gravity and seismic refraction studies have shown that segments tend to have the thickest crust (about 8 km at slow-spreading ridges) at their centres and thin crust at their ends.’
- ‘Large amounts of seismic refraction and reflection data have greatly improved knowledge of the crustal structure along the outer Voring Basin and the Voring Marginal High.’
- ‘The sedimentary basin architecture has been extensively mapped using seismic reflection profiles, and the nature of the crust has been probed with seismic refraction data.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.