A substance whose release within a cell is promoted by a hormone and which brings about a response by the cell.
- ‘Fatty acids function as second messengers and coregulators of gene transcription.’
- ‘Examples of proteins and second messengers that appear to act in multiple response pathways are also described.’
- ‘This enzyme is abundantly expressed in the lung tissue and thereby stabilizes the second messenger.’
- ‘When the neurotransmitter binds to its receptor, it activates the second messenger system.’
- ‘Calcium is involved as a second messenger in many reactions of the plant cell to external signals.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.