Definition of rough in English:



  • 1Having an uneven or irregular surface; not smooth or level.

    ‘take a square of sandpaper, rough side out’
    • ‘I could feel the movement, the change in the vibrations as iron-bound wheels went from a rough surface to a smoother one and then back to the former.’
    • ‘I took his mantle and spread it on the rough wood surface, and with some difficulty he stretched out upon it, face down.’
    • ‘Mold spores adhere more tightly to the rough surfaces than to the smooth skin of undamaged kernels.’
    • ‘The rough concrete and uneven brick of the existing envelope contrast with smooth dividers displaying works of art.’
    • ‘The ornate rugs on the rough, wooden floor seemed to be nothing but pieces of carpet, dirt scuffing away the designs of its former glamour.’
    • ‘The surface was rough behind my back, like sharp-edged pumice.’
    • ‘I leaned out as far as I could, looking down at the rough, sharp rocks on the beach below me.’
    • ‘Scientists at the European Space Agency think the lighter areas indicate a rough surface, and the dark areas are smooth.’
    • ‘His forehead is pressed against the rough, gritty plaster of the wall, sharp against his nose.’
    • ‘I reached around in the darkness, fingers flinching from the prickliness of fibreglass insulation and splinters in the attic's rough, wooden beams.’
    • ‘I reached over and touched the five o'clock shadow that was already forming on his face, and felt the rough surface against his chin.’
    • ‘The smooth slate floor of the bottom level reflects the rough basalt on the pathway through a preserved grove of evergreens.’
    • ‘Abbey gulped as she felt her wrists get tied together with rough rope.’
    • ‘The wooden floors were rough (not having ever been sanded), often giving the boy splinters.’
    • ‘To the boy it sounded like a bag of dirty clothes was being dragged across a rough area of cement.’
    • ‘Gold leaf is too delicate to be laid directly on the relatively rough surface of plaster and so the gold leaf is backed with thicker and more robust tin foil using an oil mordant as the adhesive.’
    • ‘She felt her back hit the rough surface of a tree.’
    • ‘Furniture replaced itself, but rough cloth became silk and plain wood shiny mahogany.’
    • ‘The next day I placed the figure upright on a piece of 400 grit sandpaper and smoothed out the rough surface of the putty.’
    • ‘He ran a hand over the rough surface, walking around it.’
    dry, leathery, weather-beaten
    gnarled, knotty, lumpy, knobbly, nodular
    coarse, bristly, scratchy, prickly
    uneven, irregular, bumpy, stony, rocky, broken, rugged, jaggy, craggy
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1 (of ground or terrain) having many bumps or other obstacles; difficult to cross.
      ‘they had to carry the victim across the rough, stony ground’
      • ‘A plane rescue is often impossible - most times, the weather is too abysmal and the terrain is too rough to land.’
      • ‘But the car does speed around some rough terrain with a lot of agility.’
      • ‘In rough terrain like this, Carly's enhancements make her the perfect agent.’
      • ‘Otherwise, it can be difficult to navigate rough terrain and return to an exact point.’
      • ‘That day, the trek trough the rough terrain had already broken two of the wheels, and had to use two of their spares.’
      • ‘Mac stumbled out of the shuttle, struggling to stay on his feet on the rough terrain.’
      • ‘He ushered her across the rough terrain to a small pond.’
      • ‘Well pads are spaced 80 acres apart on the open, rough prairie; the well heads are housed in garden shed-size hutches.’
      • ‘They made that old lumber wagon rattle over the rough prairie!’
      • ‘They carried on through the rough terrain with no breaks that whole day.’
      • ‘It's heavily armored but very fast even through rough terrain.’
      • ‘After days of walking through rough terrain, my body is toned and supple.’
      • ‘The random bumps the truck took from the rough terrain messed up the small pyramid she created.’
      • ‘The blast brought him to his senses and he scrambled to his feet and ran for all he was worth, down the slope and across the rough ground of the valley bottom.’
      • ‘The ‘extreme’ golf tournament will be played over 10 holes on rough terrain at ski resorts this summer.’
      • ‘He says that his new skidder works very well despite the adverse terrain and rough ground.’
      • ‘The rough ground took my mind off my problem, focusing instead on not spraining an ankle.’
      • ‘If you own a company, you know all about bumps and thumps and rough terrain.’
      • ‘Erial took Ian's arm and he helped her over the rough ground.’
      • ‘I like any location that is heavily forested and with rough terrain.’
    2. 1.2 Not soft to the touch.
      ‘her skin felt dry and rough’
      • ‘You feel compelled to touch the rough, warm stone and ancient timbers.’
      • ‘No longer sensitive to pain but still heightened to texture, the grotesque skin made her feathery touch seem rough, like sandpaper.’
      • ‘She pictured Ethan, his face, the way his eyes glazed over with desire, how soft those rough hands could be, and her words seemed hollow and empty.’
      • ‘She placated him, smoothing down his shoulder length hair with her rough and gnarled hands.’
      • ‘Suddenly, she felt a few rough fingertips softly touch her arm.’
      • ‘Her fingers curl against his hand, tiny sharp nails pressing his rough skin.’
      • ‘She felt the rough wool of his jacket slide under her touch as she grasped at his sleeve desperately.’
      • ‘I was awoken when I felt something soft and rough licking my face.’
      • ‘Gone are the days of the over-sized, thick, heavyweight shirt that feels rough against your skin.’
      • ‘I looked down at my taped hands, and didn't feel like taking off the white bandages that protected my knuckles from the harsh, rough fabric of the canvas punching bag.’
      • ‘The hands weren't the gravely and rough kind or soft and furry like all of the monsters that I knew of.’
      • ‘His hands were warm and rough, but his touch was gentle.’
      • ‘I pretended to be very interested in my carrots, wondering if his hands were rough or soft and wishing I had permission to find out.’
      • ‘She wrapped her rough fingers round the soft material of the bag and bought it back to her original sitting place.’
      • ‘Skylar's hands were warm, soft and gentle, but the skin was slightly rough to the touch, and they seemed to have an underlying strength.’
      • ‘I ran my hand through his hair and down his rough cheek, trying to soothe him.’
      • ‘They had grey, rough skin and grey hair with a few silver streaks each, and wore tattered, rag-like clothing.’
      • ‘His rough fingers touched her arm when she didn't respond.’
      • ‘It was rough, and just touching it irritated her fine, pale skin.’
      • ‘He was surprised that when he touched her cheek, her skin was soft, not rough as it appeared.’
    3. 1.3 (of a voice) coming out with difficulty so as to sound harsh and rasping.
      ‘his voice was rough with barely suppressed fury’
      • ‘A rough voice snagged her attention as they stopped before the gate.’
      • ‘Devon's voice was rough from coughing, but he spoke up.’
      • ‘The soldier's voice was rough as he spoke to the innkeeper.’
      • ‘‘I suppose if we're to be living together I should know who you are,’ he said in his rough voice.’
      • ‘Whispers followed that yell until a rough voice came out of nowhere.’
      • ‘Gavin's eyes had turned so dark a grey that they were nearly black, and his voice was rough with suppressed frustration and anger.’
      • ‘Jeffrey's voice was rough and his words were harsh but Anthony remained calm and cool, save his eyes.’
      • ‘She stayed up in the tree until a rough voice called out.’
      • ‘The voice was rough, but soothing, and she began to feel safer.’
      • ‘His voice was unusually rough and that was all he said.’
      • ‘After a short pause, he heard the door open, followed by his uncle's rough voice before the latter finally appeared in his line of vision.’
      • ‘Her rough voice sounded almost hysterical as she dropped to her knees next to him, turning his lifeless body over and checking for a pulse.’
      • ‘Her voice was rough even though her words were velvet; it was as if her vocal cords had been run against stones over the years and no longer able to speak gently.’
      • ‘Unable to even squint at the harsh light, her voice was rough and dry.’
      • ‘When he spoke, his voice was rough and husky, barely above a whisper.’
      • ‘She suddenly heard a rough voice yell to her from the shadows.’
      • ‘Considering his height, then the steely look and his rough voice, both of which reminded me a lot of Carey, he was a rather intimidating person, even to me.’
      • ‘His rough voice suddenly seemed more attractive than threatening.’
      • ‘The ‘leader’ asked in a rough voice that seemed more like a growl.’
      • ‘‘Majesty, we bring you a gift for the Prince,’ the man said in a rough voice.’
      gruff, hoarse, harsh, rasping, raspy, husky, throaty, gravelly, guttural
      raucous, discordant, cacophonous, grating, jarring, strident, harsh, dissonant, unmusical, inharmonious, unmelodious
      View synonyms
    4. 1.4 (of wine or another alcoholic drink) sharp or harsh in taste.
      • ‘Good weight of fruit and a vaguely rough tannins lead to an unsurprising warm alcoholic finish.’
      • ‘The rough red Italian vino was on the table for every meal and we drank it instead of water, not being too certain of the purity of the ship's drinking water.’
      • ‘A fine wine match here is this rustic, slightly rough and spicy 100 per cent organic red, with enough heat and heft to manage the lamb.’
      • ‘It is a lusty, even rough blend of Grenache, Syrah and Carignan.’
      • ‘After eight hours, we had gone solo and had splendid dog fights over the moors, huge fun, especially after two pints of rough cider!’
      sharp-tasting, sharp, sour, acidic, acid, vinegary
      View synonyms
    5. 1.5 Denoting the face of a tennis or squash racket from which the loops formed in the stringing process project (used as a call when the racket is spun to decide the right to serve first or to choose ends)
      The opposite of smooth
  • 2(of a person or their behavior) not gentle; violent or boisterous.

    ‘strollers should be capable of withstanding rough treatment’
    • ‘A group of rough looking men sat around a fire, drinking and laughing heartily.’
    • ‘They're rough, dirty, and all about sweat and grime.’
    • ‘Unlike the kisses we shared in the past, this kiss was rough, hard, and I could smell and taste the alcohol on his breath.’
    • ‘It was a busy day and the rough customers were more than a little rowdy that evening.’
    • ‘Mr. Woodhouse will be happy to have the boys temporarily under his care, because he thinks their father and uncle are too rough with them.’
    • ‘Janet never abused Jamie, but she could be rough when she was drunk.’
    • ‘He was harsh and demanding, rough and wild and erotic.’
    • ‘He was a rough man, but out of his venality and his bestial nature erupted this divine expression on the canvas.’
    • ‘As the Tavern continued to party, a table full of rough looking men stopped their discussion and looked up to where the fat cleric had his back to them.’
    • ‘The hand that was so gentle with love before was now harsh and rough with lust.’
    • ‘I have to admit it excited me the way he was rough and aggressive.’
    • ‘Who knew that such a rough man could feel so right?’
    • ‘He was rough, but not to the point where it actually hurt.’
    • ‘The trouble is that they are not rough or ‘warehousey’ enough.’
    • ‘‘Yes, he owns the saloon and has a rough crowd hanging around all the time,’ she explained.’
    • ‘Shannon's left eyebrow rose in speculation as Rogers fidgeted with the twin coffee mugs in his rough iron grip.’
    • ‘They all had a nice chuckle when she informed them that she had a bit of experience playing football, but was kicked out of the league because she was too rough for most of the boys.’
    • ‘Alex's first attempt to save his friend from the rough sex maniac went sour, but he's determined to try again regardless of the consequences.’
    • ‘At our old house in Chicago I had hung out with a rough crowd.’
    • ‘Of course, she wasn't stupid - the rough engineer had worn protective gauntlets to shield her hands from the impact of the armor.’
    careless, clumsy, inept, unskilful
    boorish, loutish, oafish, brutish, coarse, crude, uncouth, rough-hewn, roughcast, vulgar, unrefined, unladylike, ungentlemanly, uncultured, ill-bred, ill-mannered, unmannerly, impolite, churlish, discourteous, uncivil, ungracious, rude, brusque, blunt, curt
    violent, brutal, vicious
    View synonyms
    1. 2.1 (of an area or occasion) characterized by or notorious for the occurrence of violent behavior.
      ‘the workmen hate going to the rough areas of town’
      • ‘Living in a relatively rough part of town, I wasn't allowed out an awful lot.’
      • ‘He spent many of his summer days in back-alley taverns that were too rough for the usual city folk to drink in.’
      • ‘Our house was situated in a rough section of town that was now undergoing the early stages of gentrification.’
      • ‘Kim thought for a moment and then remembered what Rosie had said about wanting her baby to grow up in a loving family and not on some rough London estate.’
      • ‘The area they moved to was rough, and Troy was soon caught up in a bad crowd.’
      • ‘It is a very rough place and rarely does anyone from this area go there.’
      • ‘Although not a particularly rough town it had its unruly inhabitants, as did all dock towns.’
      • ‘Gonzalez, a Stanford University graduate, grew up in a rough part of the Bay Area.’
    2. 2.2 (of the sea) having large and dangerous waves.
      ‘the lifeboat crew braved rough seas to rescue a couple’
      • ‘The first was that, though the sea was indeed rough, there was little rain, and the air lacked the clammy humidity of a thunderstorm.’
      • ‘The sea was rough, but the setting sun had broken from the clouds and everything was vibrant in the sudden light.’
      • ‘How strong those gales turn out to be will determine whether the economy faces clear sailing or rough seas.’
      • ‘On this day there were tiny little rippling waves breaking on the sandy beach, but Rita told me that on occasion it could become very rough.’
      • ‘There seemed to be waves buffeting me, one after another, like bathing in a rough sea.’
      • ‘There were rough seas in the area at that time, the coast guard said, adding they dispatched patrol boats and planes Tuesday to search for the ship.’
      • ‘He hugged her again, and she clung to him as if he was a raft in a rough sea.’
      • ‘What a fragile vessel to sail into the rough seas that lay ahead!’
      • ‘It was drawing close to winter, so the ocean was rough.’
      • ‘‘This does not bode well with me,’ James said as he held his rifle as though it were a life preserver in rough seas.’
      • ‘The winds, storms, and currents combine to whip up huge seas, driving rough waves on top of massive swells.’
      • ‘Jeremiah stopped his wagon outside a hotel and stepped down, his legs wobbly and sore, as if he'd been in rough seas.’
      • ‘I chose to disregard it - I figured we had just hit rough seas.’
      • ‘I finally spotted her alone, outside on the veranda, looking at the rough ocean.’
      • ‘The amazons at the oars negotiated the rough sea with the utmost of care, proving their fine skill as seafarers.’
      • ‘I was pushing him slowly over the edge that went off into a rough sea of destruction.’
      • ‘I do not think the man will come today; the seas are rough, and the horizon shows more storms to come.’
      • ‘The beach was rough that day; the waves were great if you were a surfer.’
      • ‘The pass is granted for next weekend, and Nurse Ratched takes out a newsclipping about how rough and dangerous the sea is this year.’
      • ‘We heard that the sea was rough over the Channel and did not expect you until the end of the week.’
      turbulent, stormy, storm-tossed, tempestuous, violent, heavy, heaving, raging, choppy, agitated
      stormy, wild, tempestuous, squally, wet, rainy, windy, blustery
      View synonyms
    3. 2.3 (of weather) wild and stormy.
      • ‘There was always something to delay us - fog, or a dock strike, or else very rough weather.’
      • ‘Smoking sailors are concerned that they will often be unable to go on deck for a smoke because of rough weather.’
      • ‘Most of his seascapes show a view from the shore with rough conditions and stormy skyscapes; there are six such works in the National Gallery, London.’
      • ‘She accepted the hazards of rough weather and capricious fuel prices just as she endured the pains of teething and the angst of puberty.’
      • ‘The idea was that this would cut the journey by a week and avoid the last days of probably rough weather through the Bay of Biscay and up the English Channel.’
      • ‘But the weather turned rough and the Halcione dragged her anchor.’
      • ‘Although the rough weather and thickening fog beyond the harbour prevented us passing between the high cliffs, we made up for it with a nightcap in the yacht club.’
      • ‘The rough weather caught her too and a great wave pushed her towards the beach.’
      • ‘The rough weather of this night described his mood better than words had ever been able to.’
      • ‘Moorings were placed on the sea bed for ships to tie up to - but often captains were reluctant to do so in rough weather.’
      • ‘It is our response to the rough weather on the mountain of life that drives us back into the tent.’
      • ‘Ships have been reconstructed to find out such things as how fast could they travel, how well they handled in rough weather, etc…’
    4. 2.4informal Difficult and unpleasant; hard; severe.
      ‘the teachers gave me a rough time because my image didn't fit’
      ‘the first day of a job is rough on everyone’
      • ‘She was going to have a rough time with Wilson in the jungle for a year.’
      • ‘From the rough start at the beginning of the day, everything deteriorated.’
      • ‘If this was the explanation, then they could be in for a rough time.’
      • ‘Accompanying partners can have a rough time of it too.’
      • ‘Cost overruns from the 1995 expansion made for a rough start in 1996.’
      • ‘Moreover, it was clear that a shy, sensitive boy like me was not fit to encounter the rough experience of a public school.’
      • ‘How many more people who he had never heard of before (and that happened to get off at rough starts) were they going to pick up?’
      • ‘He had a rough time of it, but it was he who informed me of your capture.’
      • ‘All right, I understand that you've had a rough time, but there is no way you're finding out my past on these conditions.’
      • ‘If we rely on such counsel, if enhancing the national welfare depends on such, we are in for a rough time.’
      • ‘From a rough start, he has proven adroit at managing these public moments.’
      • ‘She looked like she'd had a rough time, and there was a three-foot-thick solid wall a mile high around her heart.’
      • ‘She was having a rough time explaining to Scott that she was involved with someone, and that he needed to back off.’
      • ‘Admittedly they got off to a rough start, but she was a very casual person.’
      • ‘Maybe we'd had a rough start, but it didn't turn out half bad.’
      • ‘Once they decided where to start, the going was rough.’
      • ‘Such a sharp change in input markets is bound to lead to a rough transition as producers try to adapt technology to the new price environment.’
      • ‘It's true, we may have given him a rough time last night, but I assure you, it's what any normal person would've done.’
      • ‘He had a rough time with the bills piling up, the electricity and water going off sometimes when he least expected it.’
      • ‘Gideon and I had a rough start and it included many strange occurrences but we are happy and that is all that matters.’
      difficult, hard, tough, bad, unpleasant, demanding, arduous
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    5. 2.5informal [as complement] Unwell.
      ‘the altitude had hit her and she was feeling rough’
      ill, unwell, poorly, bad, out of sorts, indisposed, not oneself, sick, queasy, nauseous, nauseated, peaky, liverish, green about the gills, run down, washed out, faint, dizzy, giddy, light-headed
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    6. 2.6informal [as complement] Depressed and anxious.
      ‘when he's feeling rough, he comes and talks things over to calm him down’
  • 3Not finished tidily or decoratively; plain and basic.

    ‘the customers sat at rough wooden tables’
    • ‘Brick stringcourses decorated rough stucco walls, while semicircular lunettes arched over the main floor windows.’
    • ‘In the corner there was a rough looking table made of cheap wood with many knot holes, with a corresponding short stool the Duke was seated on.’
    • ‘The animation is rough and basic, crafted well but never flashy or spectacular.’
    • ‘It seemed a little odd to his mind, this mixture of rough furnishings and the truly fine finish of the structure itself.’
    • ‘The walls, as in the rest of the house, are finished in traditional rough plaster that complements the timber doors and architraves.’
    • ‘If you think the finish is somewhat rough, you are right, but there is a good reason for this.’
    • ‘An inventory of the National Gallery's furniture in 1856 lists only seven and a half dozen oak chairs and one rough deal table.’
    • ‘She had spotted him sitting in one corner, dark except for the candle on the table, which was dripping hot wax onto the rough, wooden table.’
    • ‘A rough, wooden, two-stick candelabrum graced one table, while the other sported a heavy glass oil lamp.’
    • ‘Aunt Marion and Mrs. Nichols were both in the kitchen, sitting together at the rough and ancient table.’
    • ‘The house didn't look as rough when the trio finished their work, and they were immensely proud.’
    plain, basic, simple, rough and ready, rustic, rude, crude, primitive, spartan, uncomfortable
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    1. 3.1 Put together without the proper materials or skill; makeshift.
      ‘he had one arm in a rough sling’
      • ‘The finished products were rough looking, but they held together.’
      • ‘Throw together a rough prototype to bounce off users.’
      • ‘Drake grabbed a handful of his hair and twisted cruelly just as he finished tying off the rough bandage.’
      • ‘He was standing frozen in the doorway, a rough sack of belongings slung over his shoulder.’
      primitive, simple, basic, rudimentary, rough and ready, rough-hewn, make-do, makeshift, improvised, cobbled together, thrown together, homespun, unfinished, unpolished, unformed, undeveloped
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    2. 3.2 (of hair or fur) not smooth; coarse.
      ‘the creature's body was covered with rough hair’
      • ‘I saw how his hair was a little shorter now, his face was slightly tanned from exposure to the sun, and there were the rough hairs on his chin from a beard coming in.’
      • ‘He hit it hard and felt the rough bristles of its hide scouring his own furless skin.’
      • ‘He ran a hand through his hair which felt rough and gritty.’
      • ‘Her hair was rough and thin, a unfortunate mixture between blonde and brown.’
      • ‘She was young-looking, and she very long, rough hair the color of a cougar's fur.’
      • ‘I blinked in surprise; her dark, sandy-blond hair, rough in texture, was now streaked with green.’
      • ‘As the rough fur grazed against her skin, she realized that it was not hers.’
      • ‘Rough stubbles of wispy hair were developing on his dimpled chin and his rough curling sandy brown hair was unkempt and tousled wildly.’
      • ‘Beneath the rough surface hairs, there is a layer of thick, soft down.’
      • ‘She curled her rough gray hair to a crisp and her voice sounded like someone using a cheese grater against cement.’
      • ‘Jonathan, with his usual rough hair, tucked his hands in his black jacket, watching anything that caught his interest.’
      • ‘His black eyes looked soft and his blonde hair was rough and long.’
      • ‘Other signs would be general unthriftiness, rough hair coat, labored breathing, and elevated heart rate.’
      • ‘His rough black hair almost covered his rugged face upfront and was tied neatly and securely behind his back with one black, rubber band.’
      • ‘Her hand closed on rough fur, and with a lunge she threw herself forward.’
      • ‘She was a short stocky woman with rough brown hair that looked as if it would never be neat.’
    3. 3.3 Lacking sophistication or refinement.
      ‘she took care of him in her rough, kindly way’
      • ‘They spoke together in their own rough language for a while before Rastif brought Sanchen over to them.’
      • ‘Ultimately this scheme has to do with the architects' pleasure in materials and light, and in juxtaposition of the rough and refined.’
      • ‘Yet delicacy is not defeated, and this ambiguity in Jansons's paint handling - is it rough or is it refined?’
      boorish, loutish, oafish, brutish, coarse, crude, uncouth, rough-hewn, roughcast, vulgar, unrefined, unladylike, ungentlemanly, uncultured, ill-bred, ill-mannered, unmannerly, impolite, churlish, discourteous, uncivil, ungracious, rude, brusque, blunt, curt
      View synonyms
    4. 3.4 Not worked out or correct in every detail.
      ‘he had a rough draft of his new novel’
      • ‘I performed a very rough draft to an invited Parliamentary audience.’
      • ‘He only did a rough draft, but he said he'd draw in all the fine details tomorrow.’
      • ‘This is a rough draft of a story and therefore the continuity is messed up.’
      • ‘As a working artist, when I look back on my early work I look at a rough draft of myself.’
      • ‘Each story comes off as a rough draft in need of polish.’
      • ‘I wrote various rough drafts, too many of them sarcastic.’
      • ‘Even though details are still rough, it's good to know that it placed so much thought into this masterpiece.’
      • ‘We started writing together when I approached her with an idea and a rough draft of a vampire script.’
      • ‘Then, especially after I finally read the rough draft of the paper, I realized that was a pretty silly idea.’
      • ‘Conversely, the ‘performer’ will be able to generate a rough Labanotation score that can be refined by a notator.’
      • ‘When I am drawing, I use pencils for rough drafts and pens for final copies since it makes my drawings look more professional.’
      • ‘Firstly, the system is being developed online from 6 years of rough draft notes.’
      • ‘Woodward's book is just the first, very rough draft of that key time in America's history.’
      • ‘So, using the dividend yields seen during the 1998 crisis, rough target prices can be produced.’
      • ‘I'm writing something real interesting, maybe I'll lend you the rough draft.’
      • ‘The book reads like a rough draft, not a polished book.’
      • ‘While no fully unified vision emerged, the basic parameters of a rough consensus were forged during these years.’
      • ‘Whoever drew them must have seen the two before, for the pictures were quite detailed, even for a rough sketch.’
      • ‘Some manuscripts include rough and final drafts, and galley and page proofs.’
      • ‘Now that I was getting somewhere, I took out another piece of paper to write my rough draft on.’
      preliminary, hasty, quick, sketchy, cursory, basic, crude, rudimentary, rough and ready, raw, unpolished, unrefined
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  • In a manner that lacks gentleness; harshly or violently.

    ‘treat ’em rough but treat ’em fair’


  • 1British A disreputable and violent person.

    • ‘Exhausted, the roughs finally shaken off, at 1 a.m. the sweat-soaked, frightened, and bedraggled dandy hammered at the door of his last-hope refuge.’
    • ‘Two teams of roughs, clothed in only their union-suits, attempt to wrest the boar-skin from each other's possession.’
    ruffian, thug, lout, hooligan, hoodlum, rowdy, bully boy, brawler
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  • 2(on a golf course) longer grass around the fairway and the green.

    ‘his second shot was in the rough on the left’
    • ‘The 425-yard par four is a dog-leg right, with trees lining the left side and heavy rough and a fairway bunker on the right.’
    • ‘Paul Crowe, the club's golf manager, describes it to me as ‘primal - a battle with the elements and natural roughs.’’
  • 3A preliminary sketch for a design.

    ‘I did a rough to work out the scale of the lettering’
    • ‘I have roughs for about four or five more, including Oliver Twist and a couple of others I should be able to get to.’
    • ‘Then I went into the mixing studio for six weeks and worked from 7.00 am to 8: 30 am doing the drawings and colour roughs.’
    • ‘Behind the jar, a sketch pad is peopled with figurative roughs, historical drafts - the preliminaries of art and history, of cultural recognition.’
    • ‘Some artists are willing and able to create roughs or prototypes to illustrate to a licensee just how well their work would suit products.’
    • ‘Since most do not want to believe me, at a couple of random points during the semester, I will take one of the student's pinned-up roughs and wax poetic about various points and rationales.’
    • ‘They want something new every time, and heaven forbid you actually made a ‘good design’ on the first set of roughs.’
    preliminary sketch, draft, outline, mock-up, model, artist's impression
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  • 4An uncut precious stone.

    • ‘Over the course of six decades, Frank Sinatra managed to be both the diamond and the rough.’


  • 1Work or shape (something) in a rough, preliminary fashion.

    ‘flat surfaces of wood are roughed down’
    • ‘The closet bend and toilet floor flange must be roughed in first.’
    • ‘Using that comp, the artist roughs out a model in Maya.’
    • ‘Few anchorages were available in this vast maze of coastline, with its network of inlets whose beds had been roughed in with decisive strokes of Nature's creative tools.’
    1. 1.1rough something out Produce a preliminary and unfinished sketch or version of something.
      ‘the engineer roughed out a diagram on his notepad’
      • ‘Once Thompson had roughed out a design that divided the 3,300 square feet into four distinct areas, Lennon took a look and had him open up the design to allow for more square footage in the A room.’
      • ‘Working with the comp and some basic reference colors, the understructure of the ship is roughed out.’
      • ‘In the beginning, we would sit together at a computer in New York or Chicago and rough things out, which was a lot of fun but extremely unproductive.’
      • ‘Woke this morning with the grim realization that I had not polished the column - in fact, I'd just roughed it out, sketched out the basic ideas.’
      • ‘There is however one last snaggette to the system we've just been roughing out.’
      • ‘One day in March I was roughing out a scene in the script in which the off-screen voice of my aunt was introducing the action in the laundry room of a typical Argentine house.’
      draft, sketch out, outline, block out, mock up
      suggest, delineate, give a brief idea of
      View synonyms
    2. 1.2 Make uneven or ruffled.
      ‘rough up the icing with a palette knife’
      ‘the water was roughed by the wind’
      • ‘The ice is roughed up pretty badly, which slows things down and keeps me from busting my tail.’
      • ‘Peter smiled and roughed his hair like he was just a kid.’
      • ‘The middle of the album is largely filled with the former, leaving the latter to rough up the record's edges.’
      • ‘It was flat at the sides, where it was cut quite short, and the top was longer, his fringe was roughed up, the kind of style that makes you want to run your fingers through it!’
      • ‘Grosvenor used a chain saw to rough up the top face of the work, which is at a tall viewer's eye level.’
      roughen, make rough
      View synonyms
  • 2rough itLive in discomfort with only basic necessities.

    ‘she had had to rough it alone in a dive’
    • ‘Little Nicky may be an exact copy of his DNA-donor, but Gordie was a stray for a couple of years and roughed it.’
    • ‘Theoretically, if the tent has stayed up, then we could have roughed it in it.’
    • ‘With all their food provided by others, their idea of roughing it is to park a Winnebago in a campsite and worry that they won't be able to use their satellite dish when the extension cord doesn't reach the outlet.’
    • ‘If he had the choice of sleeping in a warm bed or roughing it, he'd obviously choose the first.’
    • ‘It's all very well roughing it in your twenties, but it tends to lose its novelty after a while.’
    • ‘Besides, it doesn't take much to taste good when you are roughing it.’
    • ‘Is there even a restaurant here or are we roughing it on the beach?’
    • ‘‘I'm all for sleeping in these clothes and roughing it tonight,’ she muttered.’
    • ‘He has certainly roughed it and it would be very unfair if someone else comes in and is appointed coach.’
    • ‘So Tony once roughed it on a London park bench, having travelled there to try and become a rock star.’
    • ‘There was nothing like roughing it, though maybe last night had gotten a little too rough.’
    • ‘It can scarcely be said that Byron and his staff were roughing it at Metaxata.’
    • ‘She just wasn't used to roughing it so much and it didn't help that Trom and Vicki started arguing with one another again.’
    • ‘Of course, with him, roughing it doesn't actually mean roughing it.’
    • ‘Tell me you'd rather be out here roughing it, then at home and cozy.’
    • ‘How many other commercially successful directors, at 40-plus, would head off to the Afghan border to rough it with a DV camera?’
    • ‘She thinks that roughing it is going without a nail file.’
    • ‘She also found that while she was supposed to be attending equestrian lessons, she was ditching them more and more often in favor of simply saddling her horse western style and roughing it on the trails.’
    • ‘She can picture herself roughing it with a backpack and Eurail pass - as long as there is a massage and room service at end of the trek.’
    • ‘Man cannot live by roughing it alone, which is why the first part of my journey is spent in the five-star opulence of the Tanjung Aru Resort in the state capital, Kota Kinabulu.’


  • bit of rough

    • informal A male sexual partner whose toughness or lack of sophistication is a source of attraction.

      • ‘‘They've cottoned on to me as a bit of northern erotica,’ he has jokingly said of the women that turn up to his readings, ‘a bit of rough.’’
      • ‘So, whilst many gay men like a bit of rough there are obviously many who like a bit of posh.’
      • ‘So what, she's his little bit of rough on the side?’
      • ‘But Bourne creates a parallel story in which the hero's neglected fiancée, Glenda, is picked up by a check-shirted, trumpet-playing bit of rough.’
      • ‘I always knew I'm just a bit of rough while you rebound from the divorce.’
      • ‘This reading implies that the tragedy could have been averted if only Beatrice had recognised her longing for a bit of rough, and had not pretended to fancy the aristocratic squares a woman of her class was expected to marry.’
      • ‘And she switches expertly from the upper crust wife yearning for a bit of rough to the cold company strategist.’
      • ‘If anyone ever needs proof that he is more than a meat-fisted warrior and rather attractive bit of rough, they should watch this film.’
      • ‘The heroine of Martinu's Mirandolina seduces a self-confessed misogynist, only to reconfirm his prejudices when she dumps him for a bit of rough.’
      • ‘Beers not cocktails are the order of the day but you might pick up a nice bit of rough on the way out.’
  • in the rough

    • 1In a natural state; without decoration or other treatment.

      ‘a diamond in the rough’
      • ‘Port Royal is a gem in the rough, a fact that the English Royals are quite aware of.’
      • ‘And so begins a tale of romance between the lowest of the low and a rich politician who must learn to love this diamond in the rough as she truly is.’
      • ‘Despite those small complaints, I feel this film was an overlooked gem in the rough during its theatrical run, and would make a fine rental or purchase now that it is out on DVD, especially for those readers with children.’
      • ‘Despite how content some of us may be with Linux in the rough, nontechnical users don't always appreciate the struggle.’
      • ‘In the presence of greatness, especially in the rough, where honor is often due the sage who stands outside the affairs of the world, every word or action can be persuasive.’
      • ‘But she wants to stay in the rough so I should just leave her that way.’
      • ‘Well, they were kind of picked over, but I found some diamonds in the rough.’
      • ‘Lead may be worked directly, by being hammered or beaten into shape, or indirectly, melted and cast as with bronze, or it may be cast in the rough and then finished by hammering.’
      • ‘No let us not discuss me darling, you are topic of everyone in town, and deserve it completely, for you are the brightest sun and the diamond in the rough of all the unpolished rocks that are the other jewels.’
      • ‘Those who made the effort to find the show discovered a true diamond in the rough - a show that captured everything good about improvisational comedy in a pseudo-sitcom format.’
    • 2In difficulties.

      ‘even before the recession hit, the project was in the rough’
      • ‘A group of 10 partners bought the course as a real estate investment in 1988, just in time for the regional real estate market to land in the rough.’
      • ‘The road of his thought was labyrinthine and sometimes ended in the rough of Vietnam or Richard Nixon.’
  • rough and ready

    • 1Crude but effective.

      ‘a rough-and-ready estimating method’
      • ‘So it's still a little rough and ready, although it clearly is maturing, I think.’
      • ‘It is pretty rough and ready but it is asking the right questions.’
      • ‘The result is ragged, rough and ready, very fresh and completely invigorating.’
      • ‘The sporting code, which had been rough and ready for most of the nineteenth century, especially in Africa, began to impose more self-restraint on hunters.’
      • ‘It's very rough and ready, and a bit ragged round the edges, but it does work, and I've made very sure to point out to anyone looking that it's not the real odeon website.’
      • ‘It's rough and ready and it's simple lack of visual elegance makes it so much more enjoyable.’
      • ‘Obviously these figures are rough and ready, but they evidence a point.’
      • ‘‘The recording session was a little rough and ready - the song was literally made in a room in someone's house,’ Tom laughs.’
      • ‘He's recorded live, too, which leaves some of Jamie's piano solos sounding rough and ready, but gives the performances the power of a live show.’
      • ‘Churning out three and four-deckers at his factory rate of production (and he did much else than write novels) meant that Scott was occasionally obliged to be rough and ready in the finer points of construction.’
      basic, simple, crude, unrefined, unpolished, unsophisticated
      makeshift, make-do, thrown together, cobbled together, provisional, stopgap, improvised, extemporary
      hurried, sketchy
      ad hoc
      preliminary, hasty, quick, sketchy, cursory, basic, crude, rudimentary, rough and ready, raw, unpolished, unrefined
      plain, basic, simple, rough and ready, rustic, rude, crude, primitive, spartan, uncomfortable
      View synonyms
      1. 1.1(of a person or place) unsophisticated or unrefined.
        • ‘His characters - the men, at least - are rough and ready, and thrown down on the page with tons of energy.’
        • ‘But this is almost as much Bogart's film, and he was wonderful playing against type as a businessman instead of the rough and ready tough guys he was known for.’
        • ‘He certainly secured advantageous marriages for his children and, despite a sometimes rough and ready personal manner, he attracted numerous clients.’
        • ‘Many people who went past looked rough and ready so Arthur didn't approach them.’
        • ‘The Old Town, in its heyday, was apparently a teeming place, rough and ready and full of humanity with all its flaws, vices and passion.’
        • ‘‘If it was all too perfect it wouldn't have had that kind of rough and ready atmosphere to it that gives it its magic,’ explains Evelyn.’
        • ‘He seemed the rough and ready type despite his skinny frame.’
        • ‘One of these men is the rough and ready Sam Hell (Piper).’
        • ‘Sara and Victoria were both nice enough, Danielle was a little rough and ready but I thought her heart was in the right place, and Amy had always seemed perfectly friendly and personable.’
        • ‘In either case, you may be as rough and ready with my master as you find needful; it will be he who has frightened her, and not you.’
        basic, simple, crude, unrefined, unpolished, unsophisticated
        View synonyms
  • rough around the edges

    • 1Having a few imperfections.

      ‘until we clean up and lay down the new carpet, it's going to look a little rough around the edges’
      • ‘The camerawork is enthusiastic and the editing has some nice touches - cutting on beats and using splitscreen effects - but it's rough around the edges and would have benefited from a more seasoned hand to give a little more direction.’
      • ‘This is a dark film, a bit rough around the edges, but its willingness to examine the connections between violence and ambition in the male world of the story makes it a bracing and memorable experience.’
      • ‘The documentary is a bit grainy and rough around the edges, but where else are you going to learn about this unheralded piece of animation history?’
      • ‘It's not as smooth as I'd like it to be - I haven't really written fiction for a while, and my last effort wasn't very good, so things are a bit rough around the edges.’
      • ‘In a way, the image quality matches the film - it's gritty and a bit rough around the edges, but it always delivers where it counts.’
      • ‘This debut effort shows lots of promise, but is still rough around the edges.’
      • ‘‘When we talked about what our goals were, all three of us said we really wanted to communicate a message, even if it's kind of rough around the edges - we all just really wanted to get it out,’ she says.’
      • ‘The stealth aspect of the game is also a little rough around the edges since sneaking past guards or security cameras is based almost entirely on trial and error.’
      • ‘However, they're still a bit rough around the edges - sound quality would make an enormous difference.’
      • ‘This one is rough around the edges; however, its heart is luminous.’
      1. 1.1Not refined.
        ‘Donnie is a bit rough around the edges, but she loves him’
        • ‘My problem is that he's a little rough around the edges.’
        • ‘He stood with Gary, a stout young man, a bit awkward and rough around the edges.’
        • ‘There was something about being away from home that changed a person - he was thinner, leaner, more rough around the edges than he had been in September.’
        • ‘Kelly was rough around the edges, the kind of girl who would stomp a grown man flat if she had to, despite her cotton-headed complexion, so I knew her smiling through her bite of waffles was the equivalent of a usual person laughing out loud.’
        • ‘I always liked girls that were rough around the edges.’
        • ‘And there was something about him-maybe it was the fact that in spite of all his finery he seemed a little rough around the edges, a little wild, that drew her to him.’
        • ‘Sure, some of the families in town were a little rough around the edges but he kept an eye on them and made sure nothing ever got out of hand.’
        • ‘He's a bit rough around the edges, but she was able to overcome that knowing that Brandon is happy with him.’
        • ‘‘Plenty of people are smart, but they may be rough around the edges,’ says Hall.’
        • ‘He was rugged-looking, rough around the edges, and too wild.’
  • the rough edge (or side) of one's tongue

    • A scolding.

      ‘you two stop quarreling or you'll get the rough edge of my tongue’
      • ‘Even the poor old Pope gets the rough edge of his tongue - for showing him ‘a total lack of respect’ when they met.’
      • ‘After an unusual lashing with the rough side of his tongue, Ian ordered Grant to post sentries every few yards along the crest of the hill.’
      • ‘The King pronounced himself delighted to be among ‘grave, learned and reverend men’, though he gave both bishops and Puritans the rough edge of his tongue as discussions proceeded over three days.’
  • rough edges

    • Small imperfections in someone or something that is basically satisfactory.

      • ‘Of course there were some rough edges, sagging phrases, and intonation problems, but these were soon forgotten when swept up into an interpretation of passion and character.’
      • ‘But tempting as it is to smooth over the rough edges, a richer self-portrait of the artist emerges when you consider the inconsistencies within and between each film.’
      • ‘And even if the play has the faintly over-workshopped quality you often find in American drama, in which all the rough edges are planed down, it still exerts a fiercely intelligent grip.’
      • ‘We live in a sanitized world, where spin and public image disinfects and sanitises any rough edges to our entertainment.’
      • ‘Attempts to open the play up by occasionally taking it outside are not very effective, but despite the film's rough edges, the issues that are brought up are fascinating.’
      • ‘Radio can be good fun and tends to knock off the rough edges so that you can develop as a smoother performer, ready for your big break in front of the camera.’
      • ‘But, especially as the orchestra develops, and finds itself playing on other than home territory, some of those rough edges will need to be smoothed and polished.’
      • ‘But for others it takes off the rough edges, it takes out all the excitement of a work by trying to make it more acceptable to an audience.’
      • ‘You've got to take the rough edges off if it's going to succeed.’
      • ‘While this board clearly has some rough edges, they all seem fairly minor and generally fixable.’
  • rough justice

    • Treatment that is not scrupulously fair or in accordance with the law.

      • ‘The problem with such a proactive system of justice is that it is prone to rough justice.’
      • ‘These days it seems you don't have to look very far to find someone handing out pitchforks and torches and organizing a mob to administer rough justice on some bar.’
      • ‘Such rough justice is popular, but it is hardly an ideal atmosphere in which to persuade people to in effect sign up voluntarily for the sex offenders’ register.’
      • ‘But if that's what happened in these cases, it's at least rough justice.’
      • ‘Yet comparing price-sales ratios offers a couple of advantages: First, it exacts a kind of rough justice, just the sort the market has been meting out lately.’
      • ‘The overall American legal framework was reinterpreted and adapted to fit the exigent circumstances, and rough justice was often the result.’
      • ‘But there seems a kind of rough justice in his being forced to arbitrate between Satan and God in a diabolical chat show and, for all its shock and schlock tactics, the show implies that TV has a moral responsibility.’
      • ‘It is rough justice, but with a sound foundation.’
      • ‘But in the meantime, it's hard to feel too bothered when the Internet community's long-established tradition of dispensing its own rough justice means that the world has one less spam king.’
      • ‘It's rough justice, but justice all the same, from a certain point of view.’
  • rough passage

    • 1A journey over rough sea.

      1. 1.1A difficult process of achieving something or of becoming successful.
        ‘the rough passage faced by the legislation’
        • ‘Whatever way you look at it, a rough passage would be a fair appraisal for his sojourn at the top so far.’
        • ‘It's had a rough passage at times, particularly post-9 / 11.’
        • ‘Ultimately, Geldof discovered more about America and himself than America learned about him during the rough passage that climaxed at the Palladium in New York.’
        • ‘The Stones had a rough passage through the Flower Power era, but came out the other side harder, flasher - with their eyes re-opened.’
        • ‘I told her that it might be a rough passage, but I believed that she had a good chance of being able to walk again.’
  • a rough ride

    • see ride
      • ‘So it was not surprising, given the increasingly rough ride both in Baghdad and Washington over the last weeks, that the president took to the airwaves Tuesday night to sound the alarm again.’
      • ‘From talking with them and from my own experiences going to school years ago, I have come to the conclusion that, in the education system, anyone who thinks outside the box will have a very rough ride indeed.’
      • ‘So it will be - it could be a very rough ride this time around.’
      • ‘No sooner had I pronounced the inevitable rough ride ahead than we hit our first bump.’
      • ‘‘Most victims are given a really rough ride, while most judges are not professional and frequently ask the victims to drop court injunction applications,’ he said.’
      • ‘Well, I think undeniably it's been a very rough ride so far, and I think that he has brought in some very valuable changes since coming into office.’
      • ‘Jake remembered what happened last time, so he braced himself for the rough ride ahead.’
      • ‘You know, he's had a pretty rough ride since he got named.’
      • ‘But it was their daughters who were to get the rough ride.’
      • ‘Another indication of this sexism was the rough ride given to the campaign to make sexual harassment a punishable offence.’
  • rough stuff

    • Boisterous or violent behavior.

      • ‘‘I guess she doesn't get into much rough stuff,’ I offer.’
      • ‘Usually, we give the recruits a week and a half before we start the rough stuff, but given the situation, we're resorting to shock tactics.’
      • ‘Yet in a movie that dishes out its share of rough stuff, it's not the violence that gets to people - the pivotal scene in which a grown man cries has caused the biggest fuss.’
      • ‘When there's too much rough stuff going on, captains will get lectures from the referee in front of the penalty box and coaches are as adamant as ever when things don't go the team's way.’
      • ‘She keeps the rough stuff to a minimum, though the emotional abuse is continually evident, in a tale of two lovers caught up in their own personal tragedy.’
  • sleep rough

    • Sleep in uncomfortable conditions, typically outdoors.

      • ‘After being made redundant, she slept rough for a few nights in a derelict building and was unlucky enough to be caught in a heavy frost.’
      • ‘Meanwhile, between three and six hundred people sleep rough in Melbourne every night.’
      • ‘In it, they describe the circumstances in which they became homeless and visit some of the places in the district in which they have slept rough, from a cemetery in Keighley to a derelict barn.’
      • ‘On average three people a night sleep rough in Richmond.’
      • ‘As the temperature struggled to remain above zero, volunteers slept rough to raise awareness of the struggles facing the homeless on a day-to-day basis.’
      • ‘On the night of January 8 he was found a bed, but had to sleep rough outside the Home Office the following night.’
      • ‘It helps the vulnerable people in our society who find themselves homeless and having to sleep rough, along with those who are isolated or are trying to rebuild their lives.’
      • ‘They all slept rough the previous night and many managed to blank out the morning sniffing glue.’
      • ‘It shows that almost a third of young people put themselves at risk by staying with a stranger while away from home, two out of five young people slept rough, one in eight was physically hurt and one in nine was sexually assaulted.’
      • ‘He cannot stay at grandmother's because of the condition of his licence and he is now sleeping rough.’
  • take the rough with the smooth

    • Accept the difficult or unpleasant aspects of life as well as the good.

      • ‘All too keen to be the centre of attention when announcing a waiting lists initiative or a patient-focused plan, he must learn to take the rough with the smooth and get stuck in where necessary.’
      • ‘It was the physical game as predicted and both teams took the rough with the smooth.’
      • ‘But we have had some dubious decisions against us and you have to take the rough with the smooth.’
      • ‘He never discounted the romantic element but at the same time looked for a completeness that can come by taking the rough with the smooth.’
      • ‘In an interesting formulation, he says of himself: ‘You have to take the rough with the smooth without getting so thick-skinned that you no longer bleed.’’
      • ‘‘As I said politics is politics, and I can take the rough with the smooth, but if this if the way we are going to go in the future, then politics, those involved in it, and County Mayo will not benefit,’ he said.’
      • ‘The rain did not help, but you have to take the rough with the smooth.’
      • ‘But he has learned to take the rough with the smooth.’
      • ‘You can't come into politics and complain - you've got to take the rough with the smooth.’
      • ‘After all, isn't reality about taking the rough with the smooth?’

Phrasal Verbs

  • rough someone up

    • Beat someone up.

      • ‘The evening in question, I'd been cornered by a trio of thugs, who took great delight in roughing me up.’
      • ‘So, since the gangsters know they can get away with it they try to rough her up.’
      • ‘There the recruits were forced to kneel against the wall, where they were roughed up and drenched with cold water.’
      • ‘Bob thinks Decker is attempting to brainwash Sandra, so he roughs Decker up.’
      • ‘She ran a hand through her hair and felt the cut where she had been roughed up by Derek.’
      • ‘And Darrow then turns on Mencken and roughs him up rhetorically.’
      • ‘The pizzas are knocked flying as the thugs nab Stan and start roughing him up.’
      • ‘Fearing that the criminal would return and rough me up, I blew on my crime whistle to wake my neighbors for help.’
      • ‘For the second start in a row, on Saturday night they made short work of the 39-year-old Yankee starter in their domicile, roughing him up for four runs and knocking him out after two innings.’
      • ‘Failing to do this will result in Internet thugs coming to your house and roughing you up.’
      beat up, beat, attack, assault, knock about, knock around, maltreat, mistreat, abuse, batter, manhandle
      do over, bash up, work over, beat the living daylights out of
      duff up
      beat up on
      View synonyms


Old English rūh; related to Dutch ruw and German rauh.