A process by which a solvent passes through a porous membrane in the direction opposite to that for natural osmosis when subjected to a hydrostatic pressure greater than the osmotic pressure.
- ‘A more efficient desalination technique is reverse osmosis where, by applying pressure to the seawater, the water moves across a semi-permeable membrane, leaving the dissolved salt behind.’
- ‘They submit it to such modern technological processes as ion exchange and reverse osmosis together with super-efficient filtration and evaporators to produce what is in effect a concentrated invert sugar solution from grape juice.’
- ‘Advances in processing technology, including ultrafiltration, microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and ion-exchange have resulted in development of several different finished whey products.’
- ‘An increasingly popular process, reverse osmosis, essentially filters water at the molecular level, by forcing it through a membrane.’
- ‘In addition, the most common membranes used in reverse osmosis units are subject to decay and failure and must be replaced periodically.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.