Definition of render in US English:



[with object]
  • 1Provide or give (a service, help, etc.)

    ‘money serves as a reward for services rendered’
    ‘Mrs. Evans would render assistance to those she thought were in real need’
    • ‘The services rendered by unqualified and unprofessional staff of old-age homes and day-care centres for the aged with limited resources are found wanting.’
    • ‘Three eminent persons who rendered service for the senior citizens were also honoured on the occasion.’
    • ‘She was appointed to the Court in 1987, and, over the time since then, she has rendered outstanding service to the Court, to the administration of justice and to the nation.’
    • ‘We could be rendering services to governments all over the world.’
    • ‘The upheaval in the risk-reward structure of investment banking implies major alterations in how and at what cost the industry renders its services.’
    • ‘Our Ministry and some other Ministries are rendering excellent services that cannot be compared to private sector standards and for which we do not get any compliment.’
    • ‘Unions needed to improve recruitment strategies in order to organise workers in sectors such as the non-traditional sector as well as also rendering an effective service.’
    • ‘The Order of the Sacred Treasure was also awarded in eight classes, to women as well as men and to foreigners, for rendering excellent services.’
    • ‘Likewise, there are many such women who participate actively in Indian politics and render their services to the country.’
    • ‘In this way, Kant renders a service akin to that which Aristotle, Aquinas, and Locke offer though their descriptions of natural law.’
    • ‘The services rendered by home nurses are invaluable.’
    • ‘An award reflects, in right earnest, recognises the services rendered by an individual for a specific purpose in a chosen field.’
    • ‘It provided them an opportunity to appreciate the various services rendered by these organisations.’
    • ‘They were the dancer community who rendered their service through dance.’
    • ‘Over the years, firemen have been rendering exemplary service at the most testing times.’
    • ‘At the same time, those who render meritorious service should be given due recognition with fitting rewards.’
    • ‘Every one, from the president to the long list of committee members, renders honorary service.’
    • ‘Those people who are dedicated to the cause they have undertaken will render the services.’
    • ‘On recognising their talent, the school authorities turned compassionate and rendered all assistance.’
    • ‘It's interesting to note that the Court did not place any particular relevance on the cost of rendering the service.’
    give, provide, supply, furnish, make available, contribute
    show, display, exhibit, evince, manifest
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    1. 1.1 Submit or present for inspection or consideration.
      ‘he would render income tax returns at the end of the year’
      • ‘Asking a carpenter or handyman to render an opinion regarding the structural integrity of a building is equivalent to asking a nurse's aid to diagnose a malignant carcinoma.’
      • ‘The Defendants filed a lien against the aircraft without having rendered an invoice for the work performed.’
      • ‘These inspectors will render an accounting of all nuclear, chemical and biological weapons programs and will help oversee their elimination.’
      • ‘Again, from time to time during the performance of the contract, Monaco rendered invoices and received payment from Empire.’
      send in, present, tender, submit
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    2. 1.2 Deliver (a verdict or judgment)
      ‘the jury's finding amounted to the clearest verdict yet rendered upon the scandal’
      • ‘What you need is a panel of really intelligent, well-thought-of people from both inside the government and outside, to consider this and render a judgment in fact.’
      • ‘Another questionable procedure was the practice whereby a simple majority vote of the court would decide the fate of the accused when the final judgement was rendered.’
      • ‘Fortunately for this judge, international law precludes having to render a verdict on this fiery French citizen.’
      • ‘I learned that judges, more than anyone, understand that rendering a verdict is a difficult process and a learning process.’
      • ‘The jury rendered convictions on only the latter charge.’
      • ‘And no matter how compelling the evidence, most of these juries would not render a guilty verdict.’
      • ‘So this is a group by definition prepared to render a death verdict if they feel this is the appropriate case.’
      • ‘The larger figure represents the legal costs the judge ordered Canada to pay after he rendered his decision.’
      • ‘They rendered a verdict, and I think they were right.’
      • ‘The judge will likely render a verdict between a few months and a year from now.’
      • ‘The tribunal has yet to render its verdict on the latter matter.’
      • ‘Furthermore, it had to wait 24 hours before rendering a verdict in a case.’
      • ‘He could take several weeks to render his decision.’
      • ‘At the outset, most of the jurors are eager to render a guilty verdict and go home.’
      • ‘Since all this started in 1992, decisions were rendered, appeals launched, lawyer invoices mailed.’
      • ‘They will find 12 people, 12 honest men and women who didn't know about the case and they will render a verdict.’
      • ‘So why not just wait till the movie comes out before rendering a verdict?’
      • ‘He makes it a practice to call for the removal of federal judges when they render decisions he disagrees with.’
      • ‘On May 20, 1999, the Supreme Court of Canada rendered a unanimous decision confirming the right of off reserve Indian band members to vote for chief and council.’
      • ‘But if a case goes to trial and a guilty verdict is rendered, your insurance carrier might drop you.’
      deliver, return, hand down, bring in, give, announce, pronounce, proclaim
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    3. 1.3literary Hand over.
      ‘he will render up his immortal soul’
      give back, return, restore, pay back, repay, hand over, give up, surrender, relinquish, deliver, turn over, yield, cede
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  • 2 Cause to be or become; make.

    ‘the rains rendered his escape impossible’
    • ‘He hit the pavement and hit his head hard enough to render him unconscious.’
    • ‘The passage of time has rendered redundant the distinction between new and existing duties.’
    • ‘They have, in effect, been rendered homeless by the minister's actions.’
    • ‘The proceedings before this Court would then be rendered futile.’
    • ‘The woman driving the other car is never seen again, which renders the scene meaningless.’
    • ‘As you know I have created a weapon that will render all others useless.’
    • ‘Hundreds of families, if not thousands, have been rendered homeless.’
    • ‘Depriving people of liberty yields safety only by rendering people incapable of doing harm.’
    • ‘They render what was familiar to you almost unrecognisable.’
    • ‘The limited size of such expeditionary forces obviously renders them incapable of attacking Russia.’
    • ‘With the shrinking cost and widening range of mobile phones, its services were quickly rendered obsolete.’
    • ‘Once they embark upon that glorious venture, financial considerations are rendered moot.’
    • ‘The second possibility centres on the 27-foot-tall tail fin, the loss of which renders an aircraft impossible to control.’
    • ‘The global spread of technology has rendered almost all such efforts obsolete.’
    • ‘Darkness ebbed into the corners of his vision, threatening to render him unconscious.’
    • ‘The barnacle replaces the crab's gonads with itself, thereby rendering its host sterile.’
    • ‘Lab and diagnostic equipment is strewn about, rendered useless.’
    • ‘I was half tempted to pick up a nearby acorn and chuck it at his head, in a feeble attempt to render him unconscious, thereby allowing myself to return back to my sleeping bag.’
    • ‘The goal should not be to render child-rearing costless.’
    • ‘Five persons were killed, around 22 were rendered homeless, and several houses were destroyed.’
    make, cause to be, cause to become, leave
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  • 3Represent or depict artistically.

    ‘the eyes and the cheeks are exceptionally well rendered’
    • ‘Nearby trees and other bits of greenery are rendered abstractly, seeming stylized and out of place.’
    • ‘With no distracting background or props, all attention is focused on the actor's face and costume, and their expressive qualities as rendered by the artist.’
    • ‘Colors are faithfully rendered but a bit muted; this appears to be intentional.’
    • ‘All are rendered in exquisite detail, as are the cars themselves.’
    • ‘That Leonardo rendered the muscles so evidently demonstrates that he wanted their position, interrelation, and shape to be easily understood.’
    • ‘The crisp animation and luminous colors are rendered in sharp detail.’
    • ‘He intimated mortality by rendering the things represented on his canvas as escaping the grasp of our gaze.’
    • ‘Red-coloured flames and black smoke are rendered in a stylised fashion.’
    • ‘A far darker self-portrait renders the artist in profile, his head tipped as though to study a mass of papers or a book held in his hands.’
    • ‘Finch went to considerable lengths to render the star as it appears to the naked eye, using a cluster of compacted marks to re-create its pulsing, seething mass.’
    • ‘He machine-sewed sequins onto linen to render a view of iconic factories with smokestacks.’
    • ‘The artist's skill at rendering the atmosphere above the field makes the clouds nearly palpable.’
    • ‘Pores, brick textures, smoke wisps, clouds all were rendered in sharp detail.’
    • ‘The image is generally a thing of beauty with colours brightly and faithfully rendered.’
    • ‘In the Munich painting, the artist has rendered the child, eyes straying and unfocused, reaching almost blindly for the Virgin's carnation.’
    • ‘She interweaves dark outlines and flatter strokes of paint in rendering a dangling stalk.’
    • ‘It demonstrated the artist's skill in rendering the fleeting moment in which sharp pain is reflected in the boy's expression, as in a snapshot.’
    • ‘The bear is rendered really gently because I wanted something tender.’
    • ‘Each is rendered in a garish expressionist style at odds with the subject matter, as if the artist were completely oblivious to the drama at hand.’
    • ‘In the past, the suggested landscapes were rendered in low relief.’
    paint, draw, depict, portray, represent, reproduce, execute
    act, perform, play, depict
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    1. 3.1 Perform (a piece)
      ‘a soprano solo reverently rendered by Linda Howie’
      • ‘It has given platform to performers who render the music of poet-saints of India.’
      • ‘His works are surrealistic and whimsical, rendered in oils and mixed media.’
      • ‘The audio is clear of noise and both dialogue and music are rendered faithfully.’
      • ‘This kinetic opening sequence is artistically rendered and had me on the edge of my seat.’
      • ‘An earlier work in the series, Main Street, Port Elizabeth, is rendered in thick impasto marks.’
      • ‘By the same token, a performance rendered in a machine-like manner, where tones are physically produced but not in response to prior hearing, is not a musical one.’
      • ‘The cut scenes are beautifully rendered, have a high resolution, and are quite detailed.’
      • ‘The child-like simplicity of the slow movement is rendered as a lullaby, and the finale has punch without the application of brute force.’
      • ‘Each drawing is meticulously rendered in several eccentric representational styles.’
      • ‘Music passages are pleasantly rendered and there is some hint of surround activity in some thunderstorm sequences.’
      • ‘When sound and music are rendered, something previously inexpressible can be revealed, and the concert hall can become a site to engage our desires and fantasy lives.’
      • ‘Varying in size, the works are rendered primarily in egg tempera, casein and gold leaf on wood panels.’
      • ‘Dialogue and music are clearly rendered and, while not exactly expansive, about as rich as mono from an optical source gets.’
      • ‘I admire my son's artwork: his bold colors, his systematic technique, his willingness to repeat until he renders a piece the way he wants it.’
      • ‘The sophisticated and superbly rendered Canberra plan was submitted shortly after their marriage.’
      • ‘Unlike previous years, when songs of different composers were sung, this time the choir chose to render the songs of only one composer, those of Sir John Stainer's.’
      • ‘Dialogue is well balanced with the music, which is rendered with admirable clarity.’
      • ‘On the other hand, he is the one who applauds the most when a piece is rendered in all its beauty.’
      • ‘Dialogue is clear, hiss is minimal, and the background music is nicely rendered.’
      • ‘She has rendered the novel in the simple present to get over the problem of switching tenses which sounds alright in Tamil but clumsy in English.’
      perform, play, sing, execute, interpret
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    2. 3.2 Translate.
      ‘the phrase was rendered into English’
      • ‘The stories have been rendered in excellent English by the translators.’
      • ‘Some sentences seem to be ignored in the subtitles, others are rendered into gibberish.’
      • ‘Comparable to the world's great epics, this has also been rendered into English with a transcription.’
      • ‘Another of her novels, ‘Kadan’ (‘Runa’ in Kannada) has also been rendered into Tamil.’
      • ‘Their poetry were all rendered into Tamil.’
      • ‘While residing in Vadodara in the early 1920s, he rendered into English several of her works.’
      • ‘Some of her poems had been rendered into English.’
      • ‘She tells part of the story through her letters to her sister in pidgin Bengali, rendered into pidgin English.’
      • ‘It has now been rendered into very readable English, and trimmed in a way that retains the real essentials of the work.’
      • ‘They make it obvious that Dante's text is not being neutrally rendered into English but that something is being done with it or made out of it.’
      translate, put, express, transcribe, convert
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    3. 3.3Computing Process (an outline image) using color and shading in order to make it appear solid and three-dimensional.
      • ‘Both have about 2,500 polygons, which is quite a good detailing, and which allowed me to very closely render the image I was creating.’
      • ‘The first is super sampling where as the name implies, the image is rendered at a higher resolution, then filtered down to the display resolution.’
      • ‘Graphics chips render images by breaking them into small pieces called polygons.’
      • ‘This is due to the fact the software I use for 3D does not utilise the graphics processor to render the images.’
      • ‘In Split Frame Rendering mode, the horizontal line moves up and down the screen to show how much of the image is being rendered by each video card.’
  • 4Covertly send (a foreign criminal or terrorist suspect) for interrogation abroad; subject to extraordinary rendition.

    • ‘My case is unique in the sense that I was the only person who was rendered from US soil.’
    • ‘It is the Jordanians who then rendered him to Syria for torture.’
  • 5Melt down (fat)

    ‘the fat was being cut up and rendered for lard’
    • ‘For the smoked bay scallop chowder: In large pot, cook bacon over medium heat until fat is rendered and meat is slightly browned.’
    • ‘Place the bacon in a large, heavy pot and cook, stirring, over low heat to render the fat, about 5 minutes.’
    • ‘Add the venison bones, garlic bulb, celeriac, carrots, and bacon and sauté until the bacon fat is rendered, about five minutes.’
    • ‘Add the pancetta and sauté for about 3 minutes, until the bacon is crisp and the fat is rendered.’
    • ‘It renders the fat better than straight grilling and helps you avoid that classic barbecue disaster when your meat turns to charcoal on the outside but is still raw in the middle.’
    • ‘The raw material - New Zealand tallow mostly comes from cattle and sheep, with some contribution from goats, deer and pigs - is rendered into a reasonably clean fat.’
    • ‘In a sauté pan over low heat, cook duck breasts skin side down until golden brown and fat is rendered.’
    • ‘For the shrimp, bacon and black truffles: In sauté pan, heat bacon over high heat until fat is rendered.’
    • ‘The men conducted most of this heavy work, while the women boiled the leaf fat from the entrails to render lard for shortening and lye soap.’
    • ‘In medium non-stick skillet over medium-high heat, cook bacon until its fat is rendered and browns lightly.’
    • ‘Add pancetta and cook over low heat until fat is rendered.’
    melt down, clarify, purify
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    1. 5.1 Process (the carcass of an animal) in order to extract proteins, fats, and other usable parts.
      ‘animal carcasses were rendered to provide a protein supplement’
      • ‘In addition, it is legal to render diseased animals for use in pet food.’
      • ‘Fresh killed carcasses were then railed to Wellington for freezing and processing or rendered down on the site for tallow.’
      • ‘The animal was then rendered, precluding any subsequent tests.’
      • ‘It is a system that, internally, lacks the ability to see the risks of taking cow parts and rendering them into meat and bone meal as feed for the next generation of livestock.’
      • ‘None of the carcasses entered the human food supply chain or were rendered.’
      • ‘The Over Thirty Month rule has led to three quarters of a million cattle being rendered and incinerated every year.’
      • ‘On Friday, both Canadian and U.S. officials announced plans to ban dead and sick cattle from being rendered into feed ingredients for all animal feed, including pet food.’
      • ‘No one knew in advance that feeding livestock rendered meat and bone meal would cause an epidemic of mad cow disease, but it did.’
      • ‘Those animals may be rendered in turn and fed to cattle.’
      • ‘Swift and Company, the Chicago meatpacker, was the first to mass-manufacture rendered protein and fat as animal feed as early as a century ago.’
      • ‘It was rendered into non-human food - most likely pet food - after its January slaughter.’
  • 6Cover (stone or brick) with a coat of plaster.

    ‘external walls will be rendered and tiled’
    • ‘The garden was backed by a white stone, rendered wall and the planting provided the wow factor, namely the yellowcaned bamboo.’
    • ‘The glare of this virtual openness and semi-transparency is counterbalanced by the dark grey-green slate flooring and the solid rendered brick walls.’
    • ‘Construction is steel frame with rendered brick walls.’
    • ‘If approved, the existing brickwork finish will be rendered and the internal stairs will be reworked.’
    • ‘The refurbished zinc roof forms an arresting contrast with the cream tiled and rendered walls of the main building.’
    • ‘Most ‘stone’ castles in Ireland used to be rendered with rough lime-dashed plaster, mainly in white.’
    • ‘Cadamstown was initially built in stone and the current rendered finish was added at a later date.’
    • ‘These buildings would be suitable for conversion to offices and are believed to have been built using local black limestone which was rendered at a later date.’
    • ‘Therefore it is at least possible that they were obliged to use those Fletton bricks in the rendered walls.’
    • ‘The ticket office concourse is an imposing double-height area with ceramic floor tiles and rendered walls.’
    • ‘Externally the houses have a cut stone plinth, rendered walls to first floor level and a solid timber upper floor.’
    • ‘Upper levels are rendered in dark blue painted plaster while seats in kaleidoscopic colours generate a festive air.’
    • ‘On top the slabs are rendered over to seal them, then covered with oiled mulberry paper to leave a perfectly smooth yellow continuous surface turned up at the skirting.’


  • A first coat of plaster applied to a brick or stone surface.

    • ‘Built in 1981, the 217 square metre bungalow has a stylish exterior combining white painted render with a tiered slate roof and hardwood windows.’
    • ‘The pearly grey colour and rough texture forms an expressive contrast with the smooth white render.’
    • ‘This external render is then coloured with the local earth colour to decorate the church.’
    • ‘I removed an area of render to check the brickwork behind.’
    • ‘Stress is laid on good siting (which does not mean on the top of the nearest hill) and the use of local materials such as stone or render.’
    • ‘Filigree strips of bright slanting light filtered by the bamboo move slowly with the sun and pick up the sparkle of specially chosen sand in the adobe-like render.’
    • ‘Having cleared and sandblasted the ivy-covered stone, he pointed it with lime mortar but decided ‘for the sake of appearance’ not to use a lime render over the stone.’
    • ‘The teak double-glazed windows contrast with the creamy yellow render, and shades of yellow form the backdrop for much of the interior.’
    • ‘Further liveliness was achieved in all the blocks by special treatment to the ends, and by varying the cladding between timber boarding and painted render in strong colours.’
    • ‘The white render is extended to the four outbuildings, which are fully rendered.’
    • ‘Typically Muscovite yellow render is used extensively on the residential blocks, while the chancery is clad in stone and glass.’
    • ‘Recent excavations noted a plaster render on the north face of the Wall.’
    • ‘Certainly there are new forms of render, and new ways of applying them, but will they last?’
    • ‘Set stainless steel beads in position and apply scratch coat render at a thickness of 6/8mm.’


Late Middle English: from Old French rendre, from an alteration of Latin reddere ‘give back’, from re- ‘back’ + dare ‘give’. The earliest senses were ‘recite’, ‘translate’, and ‘give back’ (hence ‘represent’ and ‘perform’); ‘hand over’ (hence ‘give help’ and ‘submit for consideration’); ‘cause to be’; and ‘melt down’.