Definition of refer in US English:



  • 1refer tono object Mention or allude to.

    ‘the reports of the commission are often referred to in the media’
    ‘New York, referred to as the Big Apple’
    • ‘The other guest, an American academic who will be referred to as Jeff, has since become a good friend.’
    • ‘I actually get quite offended if anyone dares to use that revolting word when referring to me.’
    • ‘I personally prefer not to use the word Master, and refer to myself as a Reiki Teacher.’
    • ‘After all, the word refers to the island of Lesbos, and we always capitalize place names.’
    • ‘Your Honours, I was referring to the opening words of Article 13 of the Convention.’
    • ‘Everyone has one or two names and is referred to as the son or daughter of his or her father.’
    • ‘Whether it was Pastor's accent she was referring to or his word choice he wasn't sure.’
    • ‘Here it will have to be determined whether the words in fact refer to the claimant.’
    • ‘The word duel refers to the competition element that is typical of judo on the one hand and to the rules on the other hand.’
    • ‘The star refers to the yellow identification badges the Nazis forced on the Jews.’
    • ‘The president of the United States is often referred to as the leader of the free world.’
    • ‘Of course there is a slight disagreement as to who these words refer to.’
    • ‘Only members of the Democratic Unionist party invariably refer to Derry as Londonderry.’
    • ‘The question is whether the candidates should be deemed to be elected under one or more of the rules referred to in the opening words.’
    • ‘Dennis Wyness enjoys playing for Steve Paterson, the manager he invariably refers to by his nickname.’
    • ‘Cultures treated in this manner are hereafter referred to as washed cells.’
    • ‘There is indeed much evidence of design in nature and God's Word frequently refers to it.’
    • ‘Maybe the member could explain what she actually meant by using that word in referring to the good Dr Wayne Mapp.’
    • ‘When they're dressed as women, they are women, and should be referred to as such.’
    • ‘Frequently referred to as the flu, influenza is a respiratory illness which is caused by a virus.’
    mention, make mention of, make reference to, allude to, touch on, speak about, speak of, talk about, talk of, write about, cite, name, comment on, deal with, go into, treat, treat of, note, point out, call attention to, bring up, raise, broach, introduce
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1refer someone towith object Direct the attention of someone to.
      ‘I refer my colleague to the reply that I gave some moments ago’
      • ‘Mrs Rogerson, of Langleys, referred Protocol to the signed agreement where, she said, no such arrangement had been made.’
      • ‘The biologist referred Ip to a research institution in Hainan, where he learned about pearl farming.’
      • ‘There are two statistics or two comments I want to refer you to.’
      • ‘I would refer Councillor Galloway to Map 2, showing the White Swan clearly in the ‘area covered by the brief’, or paragraph 4.35 which reads ‘Retail activity in Piccadilly is currently reduced by the long-term vacancy of the White Swan.’’
      • ‘I wrote to Paul (an old colleague) referring him to your article [on dowsing] and he replied.’
      • ‘I would like to turn to the independent advisory report which Mr Virdi referred us to in his evidence, which I have got and we have read, just to flag up some concerns there.’
      • ‘Just by chance I met a friend, and she referred me to an organisation to get a flat - I got a flat within a couple of weeks, so it's really sorted me out and I've been in the flat ever since.’
      • ‘A friend referred her to Jan-Pro and Diane purchased the smallest franchise package available.’
      • ‘Rather than repeat myself I will refer you to what I have said already in my Black Commentator column.’
      • ‘Serra referred him to a friend, the Spanish curator Carmen Gimenez, who was working at the time for the Ministry of Culture in Madrid.’
      • ‘I think my friend has already referred you to what is on page 213, but his Honour said, ‘I'll consider any submission you put.’’
      • ‘The reader is frequently referred to more comprehensive texts for expanded discussion of the pathophysiology of the disorders.’
      • ‘Your Honours were referred to a passage about three-quarters of the way down the page.’
      • ‘My learned friend referred you to the local authority of Ross v Carvallio in support of the contention that, as an applicable authority, there are two differences in respect of that authority.’
      • ‘The reader is referred to a recent article in this journal on the subject.’
      • ‘I refer Kerr to the Web site which is the most reliable site on information about cancer.’
      • ‘As I've already indicated to you that all the allegations made by Mr Manning were investigated and a response to each of the allegations was reported to parliament so I refer you to that.’
      • ‘The authors refer readers to the " modest but growing American literature " on the subject.’
      • ‘I refer Noel to the writings of Jessica Stern of Harvard, in particular her articles on al Qaeda and on Pakistan.’
      • ‘Friends, family and influential colleagues might also refer you to a trustworthy tailor.’
      pass, hand on, send on, transfer, remit, direct, leave, commit, entrust, assign, hand over
      View synonyms
    2. 1.2refer to (of a word or phrase) describe or denote; have as a referent.
      ‘the term “rhetoric” almost invariably refers to persuasion’
      • ‘"Modern physics " usually refers only to the latter.’
      • ‘The words are used to refer to any of the goods falling within the class for which the trade mark is registered.’
      • ‘A link anchor refers to the words and pictures on a web page that serve as links to another page.’
      • ‘A simplistic reduction, to be sure, but both words refer to those who provide sex for money.’
      • ‘Could it be that the Hebrew word simply refers to any partially digested food?’
      • ‘In town, the word referred to those who illegally took possession of land on the urban peripheries.’
      • ‘A century later, in the 1890s, it became an English word referring to a titbit of this kind.’
      • ‘The word refers to a technique, usually a bomb, not an ideology.’
      • ‘In fact, the word lambada is an obscure Brazilian Portuguese word, and refers to the wave like motion induced in a whip.’
      • ‘In most cases the word hernia refers to a loop of intestine pushing through a weak area in the wall of the abdomen.’
      • ‘The word refers to an emotion briefly held in common by a gathering of people who may be strangers to one another.’
      • ‘In fact, as will be obvious to any reader who has ever used an index, the symbols in the key refer to the chapters in which the characters appear.’
      • ‘What about the many words that refer to the act of sexual intercourse?’
      • ‘The word itself refers to a method of dyeing designs on cloth by coating with removable wax the parts not to be dyed.’
      • ‘Aging is a loose term referring generally to physiological deterioration as a function of time.’
      • ‘It was not like words referring to nationality, such as Aussie or Brit, which could be used affectionately.’
      • ‘The word once referred to a crude model of a more important work, and in a sense it still does.’
      • ‘Did you think the word underclass refers to those left out of most privileges afforded by society?’
      • ‘However, the term usually refers to an executive or presidential veto over legislation.’
      • ‘Words that refer to kinds of things have definitions that describe the essences of those kinds.’
      apply to, be relevant to, have relevance to, concern, relate to, belong to, be about, have to do with, be connected with, have reference to, pertain to, appertain to, be pertinent to, have a bearing on, bear on, affect, involve, cover, touch, touch on
      denote, describe, indicate, mean, depict, symbolize, signify, designate, stand for, represent
      View synonyms
  • 2refer something towith object Pass a matter to (another body, typically one with more authority or expertise) for a decision.

    ‘disagreement arose and the issue was referred back to the Executive Committee’
    • ‘We believe it is vital that this bill be referred to a select committee.’
    • ‘After looking at the pictures, magistrates referred Bussue to Leeds Crown Court for sentencing because they said his case was so serious he should receive a greater sentence than they had the power to give.’
    • ‘Earlier this year, Ofcom considered referring BT to the Competition Commission over the issue, which could have lead to BT Retail and BT Wholesale being split.’
    • ‘They referred Crossley to the crown court where he will appear next month.’
    • ‘Two further disputes have been referred to adjudication before me.’
    • ‘The parties agreed to refer their dispute to one Rabbi Rosner for mediation and arbitration.’
    • ‘As a result of this breach of EU competition rules, designed to ensure everyone gets a chance to tender for such contracts, the Commission is referring Ireland to the European Court of Justice.’
    • ‘Surveillance of construction sites, followed by visits, resulting in cases being referred for possible prosecution.’
    • ‘We have repeatedly asked the council to refer this matter to an independent body.’
    • ‘The GMC also claimed to have forgotten one case not previously referred to the preliminary proceedings committee.’
    • ‘A spokesperson for Mr Cox denied the timing of his decision to refer the issue to the European Court of Justice has anything to do with the date of the EU-US summit.’
    • ‘Their brief is to resolve as many issues as possible without going to the full cabinet, and if they cannot reach a decision to refer the question to that body.’
    • ‘His decision not to refer the matter to the Minister, on the face of the material before the Court, cannot be said to be so unreasonable that no reasonable decision-maker could have made it.’
    • ‘After the Schools Organisation Committee failed to reach a unanimous decision the matter was referred to the Government schools adjudicator.’
    • ‘The court often refers matters to other individuals for them to take certain steps and make certain findings.’
    • ‘The allegations were referred to police by Philip Robinson, the Council's acting chief executive and returning officer.’
    • ‘The government did not agree to refer the water dispute to the Supreme Court.’
    • ‘A decision to refer a matter to the minister depends on its sensitivity, demands on resources, need for a political judgement, and uncertainty about the minister's reactions.’
    • ‘The decision to refer the matter to the Security Council is a sign, moreover, that the world is united in its view that North Korea and Iraq are grave concerns.’
    • ‘Following mediation, the case was referred to arbitration.’
    1. 2.1refer someone to Send or direct someone to a medical specialist.
      ‘she was referred to a clinical psychologist for counseling’
      • ‘You should be able to talk over your options for treatment with your GP and any specialist that you are referred to.’
      • ‘Children with an abnormal coagulation profile are frequently referred to pediatric hematology clinics.’
      • ‘Since then, I have been referred to a specialist rheumatology hospital and have been prescribed many nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs.’
      • ‘I am advised that Mr Draper was referred to a vascular specialist at Middlemore Hospital by his general practitioner.’
      • ‘She was evaluated by her primary care physician and was referred for further evaluation.’
      • ‘After receiving the diagnosis of Scheuermann's disease, Brian was referred to a spine specialist in a nearby city in Wisconsin.’
      • ‘If a non-surgical approach fails, the patient is often referred to a surgeon.’
      • ‘In addition, all of the participants had various medical conditions, but they were referred to the clinic because of stress-related symptoms.’
      • ‘A sequence of spots of lights is shown, and you will be asked which ones you can see. If you are found to have glaucoma, you will be referred to an ophthalmologist (specialist eye doctor) for treatment.’
      • ‘After her latest annual review she was referred to the diabetes specialist nurse for further follow up in an attempt to improve her glycaemic control.’
      • ‘A study in Denmark showed that patients frequently referred to specialists with unexplained symptoms are exposed to extensive surgery.’
      • ‘If you are referred urgently by your GP, a specialist should see you within two weeks.’
      • ‘Are claimants ever referred for assessment if they have been severely disadvantaged by injury?’
      • ‘About half the women who are referred for colposcopy have a normal cervix.’
      • ‘Kids are referred for psychiatric evaluation primarily because someone wants them to take medication.’
      • ‘I informed the school authorities, and the teacher was referred for psychiatric evaluation.’
      • ‘If your doctor thinks that you may need an angioplasty, you will be referred to a hospital specialist.’
      • ‘If your doctor thinks you have an eating disorder, you might be referred to a specialist so you can get the treatment you need.’
      • ‘Our subjects had had persistent mildly abnormal smears before being referred for colposcopy (reflecting United Kingdom guidelines).’
      • ‘At the moment, your doctor, dentist or optician decides which hospital and consultant you are referred to.’
    2. 2.2refer tono object Read or otherwise use (a source of information) in order to ascertain something; consult.
      ‘I always refer to a dictionary when I come across a new word’
      • ‘The amount of time people spend contending with each other there, quoting articles, and referring to other sources!’
      • ‘Of course, they always have to refer to the trade unions and membership below them.’
      • ‘For more information, please refer to the separate page on Bar Billiards.’
      • ‘I had to refer to the dictionary to determine the exact meaning of ‘malfeasance’.’
      • ‘He could have referred to the words of the bill, which is what the Committee stage is for.’
      • ‘If you get confused while reading, you can refer to the glossary to put everything in proper context.’
      • ‘The applicants' friends were referred to as sources.’
      • ‘It may be helpful to refer to Table 2 while reading the following points.’
      • ‘Leddy refers to sources as diverse as Bartok, Darwin and Baudrillard, but essentially it's a send-up.’
      • ‘For genetic descriptions and symbols we refer to Lindsley and Zimm.’
      • ‘The most difficult part of packing books is deciding which ones I am most likely to want to read or refer to in the near future.’
      • ‘There will also be a small thing that can be referred back to at the very end.’
      • ‘Some of them refer to earlier sources, such as Wolfram von Eschenbach's Kyot or the book given to Chretien by his patron.’
      • ‘I refer to page 273 of the application book for that, for the values.’
      • ‘A number of local information sources are referred to within MPD's discussions.’
      • ‘These are magazines your customers read and likely refer to when they enter your gun shop.’
      consult, turn to, look at, look up, look up in, seek information from, search in, have recourse to, call on
      View synonyms
  • 3refer something toarchaic with object Trace or attribute something to (someone or something) as a cause or source.

    ‘the God to whom he habitually referred his highest inspirations’
    • ‘Unsurprisingly, Gallo refers everything back to his childhood, mining his youth for anecdotes.’
    1. 3.1 Regard something as belonging to (a certain period, place, or class).
      • ‘Most people refer the relationship to the Accord period, and the last had Labor governments.’
      • ‘Bayfield interpreted his specimens as belonging to the coral genus Cyathophyllum, while Meglitsky referred the Siberian specimens to Calamites, a Carboniferous genus of vascular plants.’


Late Middle English: from Old French referer or Latin referre ‘carry back’, from re- ‘back’ + ferre ‘bring’.