The name of all the Macedonian rulers of Egypt, a dynasty founded by Ptolemy, a close friend and general of Alexander the Great, who took charge of Egypt after the latter's death and declared himself king (Ptolemy I) in 304 BC. The dynasty ended with the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC.
Greek astronomer and geographer of the 2nd century ad. His teachings had enormous influence on medieval thought, the geocentric view of the cosmos being adopted as Christian doctrine until the late Renaissance. His "Geography" was also a standard work for centuries, despite its inaccuracies.