Definition of preclinical in English:



  • 1Relating to or denoting a stage preceding a clinical stage, in particular.

    • ‘It also represents a new era of medical treatment ‘in which the integration between preclinical researchers and clinical oncologists is seamless,’ Giles says.’
    • ‘Early clinical studies support preclinical findings and show that the drug is well tolerated overall.’
    • ‘Surrogate markers can either be preclinical or clinical.’
    • ‘Calibration of the system is expected to be useful for measurements on tumor tissues, however, this type of calibration should be carried out in any new tissues which are going to be probed in preclinical or clinical studies.’
    • ‘In relation to a company's key idea, how would you weight the value of preclinical and clinical testing for making sure that the company has a technically proven approach?’
    • ‘The criteria are based on a simple linear model of disease progression in which screening tests primarily detect a preclinical asymptomatic phase.’
    • ‘None is yet established as a ‘routine’ method, either in preclinical or clinical studies.’
    • ‘Occupancy of the new facility has begun with employees in the preclinical development and clinical research areas.’
    • ‘Certainly, clinical studies need to be conducted to confirm the preclinical data.’
    • ‘It also outlines measures to mitigate the risks as part of preclinical testing, animal testing, clinical testing, sterility, and labeling.’
    1. 1.1Relating to or denoting the first, chiefly theoretical, stage of a medical education.
      ‘preclinical students’
      • ‘Electronic databases will continue to grow in size and cover medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine and the preclinical sciences.’
      • ‘After graduation, he decided to follow a growing conviction that his life should be in medicine, and he moved to Oxford for preclinical studies.’
      • ‘It covers 4300 journals devoted to medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, healthcare systems, and the preclinical sciences.’
      • ‘Medical students with high preclinical and clinical grade point averages were, surprisingly, more likely to express an external orientation.’
      • ‘The researchers noted that of the 86 preclinical dental students in Paris who did not have regular contact with latex gloves, all had negative skin test results when the same battery of skin tests was used.’
      • ‘There will be only two major examinations, one after the preclinical phase and the last one after the practical year, but examinations on the individual clinical subjects will be held after each course.’
      • ‘Researchers in the United States have identified two observable measures that predict future professionalism: conscientious behaviour; and humility in self assessment in the preclinical years.’
      • ‘Today, gross anatomy is taught in a preclinical dissection course for second year medical students.’
      • ‘I was 20, a first year preclinical student, awaiting surgery for a large hiatus hernia.’
      • ‘Between 1991 and 1995, some students were sent for preclinical training in Australia and South Africa as well as Britain.’
      • ‘He trained at Edinburgh because Guy's would not recognise his preclinical year at Witswattersrand University.’
      • ‘I had just finished my preclinical training at Cambridge and had come down to London to walk the wards at Bart's.’
      • ‘She completed her preclinical training at technical colleges before going to Leeds, where she met her husband, Benno Pollak.’
      • ‘In future medical courses will comprise six years: two years of preclinical studies, three years of clinical studies, and one year of practical work on the wards.’
      • ‘It's sufficient to say that preclinical medical students aren't the only people a little enamored with this disease.’
    2. 1.2Relating to or denoting the stage in a disease prior to the appearance of symptoms that make a diagnosis possible.
      • ‘Data from a screening study showed that a screening interval of nine months was too long, and from this it was assumed that bladder cancer has a brief preclinical duration.’
      • ‘Diseases with long preclinical phases are more likely to be detected by screening.’
      • ‘There is ample evidence of a prolonged preclinical phase in lung cancer.’
      • ‘Beyond the fear and uncertainty about this illness, the diabetes study has been condemned for insufficient preclinical research.’
      • ‘These are proving particularly effective for treating cancer in preclinical models.’
      • ‘These results, although striking, deserve additional investigation within preclinical models of allergic airway disease and possibly, subsequent investigation in populations of patients with asthma.’
      • ‘These findings suggest a need for in vivo studies with this combination in preclinical prostate cancer models.’
      • ‘If patients aged over 45 with other risk factors are screened every three years, and those with impaired fasting glucose have an oral glucose tolerance test, nearly all cases of diabetes will be identified in a preclinical phase.’
      • ‘Alzheimer's disease is characterised by a preclinical phase, during which cognitive deficits are seen before diagnosis’
      • ‘Mercury is neurotoxic, and even in people with low level chronic exposure, subtle preclinical effects on symptoms, mood, motor function, and cognition have been identified.’
      • ‘This provides a wide therapeutic window, especially as groups at risk are identified earlier and preclinical diagnosis becomes feasible.’
      • ‘Moreover, we screened for preclinical signs and not for signs of overt lung disease.’
      • ‘He said he hopes the model will be useful in preclinical testing of possible preventive therapies before they are given to human subjects.’
      • ‘Improved understanding of this illness during the slow progression from preclinical to moderate disease would aid the development of strategies for primary and secondary prevention.’
    3. 1.3Relating to or denoting the stage of drug testing that precedes the clinical stage.
      • ‘Only five compounds out of 5,000 in preclinical tests get as far as human trials.’
      • ‘The drugs are in clinical and preclinical trials.’
      • ‘The efficacy and safety of some of the new vaccine candidates have been evaluated and proven in human preclinical / clinical trials.’
      • ‘Based on preclinical studies and clinical trials in other cancers, we believe that our technology has the potential to be a safe and effective treatment for this challenging disease.’
      • ‘Some recent reviews are listed here on general properties of porphyrins as sensitizers and on their preclinical and clinical tests.’
      • ‘In preclinical testing these vectors were highly effective against cancerous tumors and did not harm normal tissues.’
      • ‘The grant will fund two clinical trials, three preclinical research studies, and a training program in gene therapy.’
      • ‘In 2001 and 2002 we completed all of our clinical trials, our preclinical trials, and the animal work and bench work on the product.’
      • ‘Drug Reports are summaries of drugs in development from preclinical to launched drugs.’
      • ‘By developing excellent preclinical safety profiles of drug candidates, it has been able to streamline development, allowing researchers to rapidly assess a drug's antiviral activity and effectiveness.’
      • ‘The proportion of biomedical research paid for by industry has changed little during the past 10 years, but the pharmaceutical industry has shifted its focus away from preclinical research and towards clinical trials.’
      • ‘Had preclinical trials involved 50 rhesus monkeys instead of 20, and also involved chimpanzees as well as rats, mice and rabbits, then the potential for a catastrophic event in humans might have been detected.’
      • ‘In preclinical trials, it has been shown to reduce the incidence of diabetes in animals, apparently by down-regulating the immune response.’
      • ‘They also do the vast majority of drug development, from preclinical animal studies through human clinical trials (the latter in collaboration with academic medical centers), and bear the economic risk.’
      • ‘The authors called for greater use of systematic reviews in preclinical drug evaluation.’
      • ‘Several drugs are currently under preclinical and early phase clinical study.’
      • ‘Research and development is currently at preclinical stage, progressing to Phase I clinical trials in 2005.’
      • ‘A number of such vectors are currently being developed and tested in preclinical and early phase clinical trials.’
      • ‘‘What we're discovering about the human genome has implications in every stage from preclinical research to the point where you start putting new drugs into people,’ he says.’