A region within a force field in which the potential is significantly higher than at points on either side of it, so that a particle requires energy to pass through it.
- ‘Electrostatic calculations revealed a potential barrier in the water phase some 0.5-1 nm away from the membrane surface.’
- ‘As long as the surface tension in the drop is larger than the repulsive Coulomb force due to the protons, a potential barrier prevents it from splitting.’
- ‘There are radioactive nuclei that behave as if they contain certain constituents, called particles, that are trapped within the nucleus by a potential barrier generated by the nuclear forces.’
- ‘Here we showed that the low dielectric permittivity of interfacial water leads to a potential barrier for ions moving between the surface and the bulk water phase.’
- ‘It is argued that the low dielectric permittivity of the surface water leads to a potential barrier for ions, which is high enough to be important for biological energy transduction.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.