One of the mysteries of the English language finally explained.
(in Stoic thought) the vital spirit, soul, or creative force of a person.
soul, spirit, self, inner self, innermost self, ego, inner ego, true being, essential nature, life force, vital force, inner man, inner woman, persona, identity, personality, individuality, make-up, subconscious, mind, intellectView synonyms
- ‘Ruah, in Hebrew, and pneuma, in Greek, are often translated ‘spirit’ but both literally mean ‘breath.’’
- ‘In Stoic philosophy, the pneuma penetrates all things, holding things together.’
- ‘Indeed, most cultures have believed in the existence of a vital force: the Chinese call it chi; the Hindus know it as prana; the ancient Greeks used to call it pneuma or psyche, while the Romans talked about three kinds of spirits.’
Greek, literally ‘that which is breathed or blown’.
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