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A genetic structure in a cell that can replicate independently of the chromosomes, typically a small circular DNA strand in the cytoplasm of a bacterium or protozoan. Plasmids are much used in the laboratory manipulation of genes.Compare with episome
- ‘The bacterium contains a plasmid, a circular piece of DNA that holds the gene and promoter sequence.’
- ‘The replication control genes of bacterial plasmids face selection at two conflicting levels.’
- ‘For sporulation, diploid cells with plasmids were first grown in selective media.’
- ‘Conjugative plasmids can mediate gene transfer between bacterial taxa in diverse environments.’
- ‘We note, however, that few if any of the genes borne by bacterial plasmids are under strong positive selection at all times.’
1950s: from plasma + -id.
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The definitions of ‘buddy’ and ‘bro’ in the OED have recently been revised. We explore their history and increase in popularity.