One of the mysteries of the English language finally explained.
1An ornamental tablet, typically of metal, porcelain, or wood, that is fixed to a wall or other surface in commemoration of a person or event.
memorial tablet, plate, stone plate, metal plate, tablet, panel, sign, brass, medallion, plaquette, cartoucheView synonyms
- ‘A commemoration room in the service wing is to be created, where all the accumulated plaques and commemoration panels are to reside.’
- ‘The Cincfleet Admiral took the salute and unveiled a plaque to commemorate the event.’
- ‘Specially commissioned carved wood plaques, made by Crookedwood Crafts in Abbeyleix, were presented to both the recipients along with framed certificates of achievement.’
- ‘There is a plaque on this wall commemorating the successful Stuart expedition as you can see at right.’
- ‘The thieves made off with £60,000-worth of objects comprising three small cups, two miniature animal figures, a bowl, two small ornamental plaques and a small ritual cylinder.’
- ‘We sit in a café, drinking hot chocolate with an entire cow of cream on top, looking at the town festival guide and wondering why so many Germans carry walking sticks with those little metal place plaques nailed to them.’
- ‘The picture of his agile shot was published all round the globe and to this day there is a plaque marking the event near the base of the tree.’
- ‘Every buyer gets a certificate and plaques in the wood will show each tree's location.’
- ‘At the time of the purchase a promise was made that on completion of planting the wood, a plaque showing the location of each tree and the name of the person it was to commemorate would be placed on the site.’
- ‘As a three-day ruling party congress ended at Victoria Falls, hooligans from Zanu-PF chiselled brass plaques commemorating the dead of two world wars from the cathedral's sanctuary.’
- ‘Commemorative wall plaques and mugs in celebration of 150 years of St. Conleth's Church are available in the Parish Office.’
- ‘On view are a plethora of objects out of Iranian cultural traditions, from intricate, handmade silk carpets, to metal pots and plaques, to books, illustrations and masterpiece calligraphy.’
- ‘In addition to elaborate marquetry panels and inset porcelain plaques, much of this furniture was accented with bronze mounts.’
- ‘For £10 per tree, the donor's name will be inscribed on a plaque in the wood and also included in a time capsule to be buried there.’
- ‘The ‘top shot, ‘as well as others who place in this event, will receive plaques.’’
- ‘For me, one of the principal charms of New York City is that it is home to some of the greatest jazz figures in history, who are commemorated with plaques, signs or street names in neighbourhoods where they lived.’
- ‘The kick off is at 2pm where a plaque to commemorate the event will be unveiled.’
- ‘In a number of investigations authors have suggested and provided evidence for the adsorption of heavy metals onto the surface of iron plaques.’
- ‘Winners' plaques, bowling woods, cribbage boards and a railway engine name plate are among the items to go under the hammer at Kidson Trigg auctioneers, in Sevenhampton, Highworth, tomorrow.’
- ‘She says they have inventoried and documented the existing plaques and wood engravings which are to be moved to the temporary Memorial which will be placed next to the entrance of the cement stairs.’
2A sticky deposit on teeth in which bacteria proliferate.
- ‘The etiology of caries is a combination of elements: susceptible teeth, dental plaque, food and the length of time food remains in contact with the teeth.’
- ‘This involves a thorough clean and polish of the teeth, to remove the sticky plaque that can build up.’
- ‘So you should do it to remove plaque and bacteria.’
- ‘It occurs when bacterial plaque and food debris accumulate beneath the flap of gum covering the partially erupted tooth.’
- ‘His bad breath is likely from the build-up of plaque on his teeth and bacteria on his tongue, as well as possibly from cavities.’
- ‘He noted that only a subset of bacteria tend to be dominant in dental plaque.’
- ‘Pericoronitis - an infection of the soft tissue surrounding the tooth, caused by a build of plaque (a sticky white substance that contains bacteria).’
- ‘When bacteria and food particles stick to saliva on the teeth, plaque forms.’
- ‘Salivary bicarbonate can help protect teeth against attack from acids produced by bacteria in dental plaque.’
- ‘Components of dental plaque are a bacterium known as Streptococcus mutans and to a lesser extent Lactobacilli.’
- ‘Tooth decay is caused by the bacteria in dental plaque breaking down sugar in the foods and drinks that you eat and drink.’
- ‘You probably know that flossing removes plaque from between teeth and at the gum line, where periodontal disease often begins.’
- ‘The milk or juice can pool in her mouth and cause tooth decay and plaque.’
- ‘Dental floss removes plaque from between the teeth where the toothbrush cannot reach.’
- ‘It is important to remove plaque from the teeth thoroughly twice a day.’
- ‘Most people have irregularities in their teeth where plaque can accumulate out of reach and harden into tartar.’
- ‘Fermentation of sugars by plaque bacteria causes caries by decalcification and proteolysis of enamel and dentine’
- ‘Bacteria in plaque around teeth metabolize sugars rapidly, creating local areas of high acidity which erode tooth enamel.’
- ‘Mechanical oral care involves removal of plaque by tooth brushing and/or rinsing of the oral cavity.’
- ‘Could the answer for dental plaque be a transplant, not of teeth but of genetically engineered bacteria?’
A small, distinct, typically raised patch or region resulting from local damage or deposition of material, such as a fatty deposit on an artery wall in atherosclerosis or a site of localized damage of brain tissue in Alzheimer's disease.
- ‘High blood cholesterol can lead to deposits of plaques, which narrow your arteries and increase your risk of heart attack and stroke.’
- ‘It's found in the plaques inside the brain that cause Alzheimer's disease, that insidious loss of memory, then mental function, and eventually identity.’
- ‘To understand how atherosclerotic plaques become deposited in arteries it is necessary to understand how the highly insoluble cholesterol is moved about the body.’
- ‘They found the pathogen in 20 out of 38 plaques from diseased arteries, but found none in seven normal arteries removed during postmortem examination.’
- ‘Atherosclerosis, which develops as fatty plaques within arterial walls, underlies both heart attack and stroke.’
- 3.1Microbiology A clear area in a cell culture caused by the inhibition of growth or destruction of cells by an agent such as a virus.
- ‘Progeny phage that produced clear plaques in the presence of IPTG and X-gal were analyzed by a differential oligonucleotide hybridization technique, as reported.’
- ‘When DH33h is grown on a mixed lawn of P. phaseolicola and ERA, it infects both hosts and forms clear plaques.’
- ‘The comparative analysis of the degree of pathogenecity among Indian isolates of WNV in mice, and their plaque size in cell culture were studied 30.’
- ‘Several lines of evidence previously implied that oxidative damage to lipid membranes could disrupt normal neuronal and glial cell functioning, leading to the formation of amyloid plaques and to neuronal cell death.’
- ‘The activated PS2-containing integrins are clustered in basal plaques on each cell, but the PS1-containing heterodimers are not.’
Mid 19th century: from French, from Dutch plak ‘tablet’, from plakken ‘to stick’.
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