treated as singular The branch of pharmacology concerned with the effects of drugs and the mechanism of their action.
- ‘The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs can change unpredictably in patients at the end of life.’
- ‘Its unique pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics make methadone a valuable option, but physicians should be aware of possible side effects.’
- ‘The first section is dedicated to the fundamental principles of toxicology, including chapters on postmortem forensic toxicology, performance toxicology, forensic drug testing, and pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.’
- ‘Although age-related analgesic effects are extremely variable among elderly patients, changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics could account for various adverse effects in this population.’
- ‘Does the patient have any metabolic impairments that would alter the pharmacokinetics or the pharmacodynamics of the drug (ie, impaired renal or liver function)?’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.