(1849–1936), Russian physiologist; full name Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. He is best known for his studies on the conditioned reflex. He showed by experimenting with dogs how the secretion of saliva can be stimulated not only by food but also by the sound of a bell associated with food. Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (1904)
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.