Definition of orthography in English:



  • 1The conventional spelling system of a language.

    • ‘Although nineteenth-century missionaries created orthographies and dictionaries for some of the languages, indigenous literature is mostly oral.’
    • ‘This issue was discussed in relation to developing strategies in attentional control in reading Turkish, and regular versus irregular orthographies.’
    • ‘The orthographies of the world's major languages, however, became standardized in the context of publishing books, using any orthography that people would read.’
    • ‘Not all letter-sound associations are easy to state explicitly or are completely consistent in many of the world's orthographies, nor are they often explicitly taught past the early stages of instruction.’
    • ‘In the case of Cquila there is a distinct suggestion of the orthographies of Southern Bantu languages like Zulu.’
    • ‘Those orthographies made it possible to write Chinese phonetically and to write spoken Japanese terms that had no equivalent Chinese characters.’
    • ‘At least in some orthographies, semantics play a larger role in single-word naming than previously thought.’
    • ‘Finally, it is important to acknowledge the logical possibility that phonological recoding may operate differently across different orthographies.’
    • ‘Among designers of orthographies for previously nonwritten languages, the prevailing wisdom is that native speakers of tone languages need to see at least some tones marked to achieve full literacy in those languages.’
    • ‘The awareness of component sounds is arguably a more critical aspect of early literacy development in orthographies such as English where these segments are less explicitly and irregularly marked in the written language.’
    • ‘In other words, even the written form of the language is not clearly preserved in a definite form, as opposed to hinted at in various fragments in different orthographies.’
    • ‘Turkish was omitted from the Smythe et al. review of dyslexia across languages despite reports of dyslexia in transparent orthographies (Finnish, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish).’
    • ‘And there is some hope that open-source projects such as Pango will allow programmers to intervene directly to solve the problems, at least partially, for the languages and orthographies that they care about.’
    • ‘These findings are consistent with previous reports that visual processing contributes to prediction of reading skills both in English and Chinese orthographies.’
    • ‘For example, in one of the orthographies proposed for the French-based Creole spoken in the Dominican Republic, ‘Today I am sick’ would be written as zordi mwe malad, while in French, this would be aujourd'hui je suis malade.’
    • ‘However, Aro and Wimmer further show that reading fluency or automaticity for pseudoword reading is affected not only by the regularity of orthographies but also other factors.’
    • ‘A bi-alphabetic edition of Shaw's play Androcles and the Lion was published by Penguin Books in 1962 to demonstrate the old and new orthographies side by side, the texts running parallel on facing pages.’
    • ‘Because the orthographies of Spanish and English present intriguing contrasts and similarities, these two languages provide ideal vehicles for initial study of spelling transfer.’
    • ‘In fact, those insights will sometimes be decisive in the standardization of orthographies for indigenous languages, as is the case for the PROPELCA experiment in Cameroon.’
    • ‘In French, as well as in deep orthographies like English, some transcriptions are best represented at the morpheme level rather than at the phonological level.’
    1. 1.1The study of spelling and how letters combine to represent sounds and form words.
      • ‘So it's a mixture of information about orthography, syntax; it has a small grammar section, and over time it's expanded what's contained within that.’
      • ‘The Third Part relates to grammar, syntax, orthography, vowels and consonants.’
      • ‘But those attitudes belong to the past, along with grammar drills and orthography.’
      • ‘All the foils were unrelated in meaning, sound, and orthography to the study sets.’
      • ‘While most of her misspellings simply reflect her lack of knowledge of standard Spanish orthography, the words listed below demonstrate her nonstandard pronunciation.’
      • ‘The former will probably most appreciate the extensive explanations Oliver provides on orthography, phonology, morphology, and syntax, and her updating of the arguments with the latest scholarship.’
      • ‘The modern Turkish orthography consists of 29 Roman letters and was designed to embody sounds in the spoken language in a totally transparent manner.’
      • ‘The combination of alphabetic orthography and Google is an interesting new tool for language identification!’
      • ‘Shaw's knowledge of phonetics and views on literacy led him to demand a rational system of spelling which would follow the sounds of English and reduce time wasted by traditional orthography.’
      • ‘The orthography requires both accents above and dots below certain letters, and getting this rendered correctly on the web without special fonts remains a bit chancy.’
      • ‘The WASPT has several sections, including reading comprehension, vocabulary, orthography and stress mark, and writing composition.’
      • ‘His remarks on French, focus on syntax and semantics, all but omitting phonology, phonetics and orthography.’
      • ‘Garifuna spellings vary because there is no common orthography (method of spelling), which is spoken in five Central American countries.’
      • ‘This does not deny the importance of work by linguists on problems of orthography.’
      • ‘Per normal English orthography / pronunciation rules, one would expect to pronounce ‘leafleter’ ‘leaf-leeter.’’
      • ‘The textbase available to the present writer permits only the counting of very common words, since only these are standardised in orthography in the texts, and there is no tagging beyond selected common word types.’
      • ‘What is meant by the following: Alphabet, phonetic, orthography, etymology, syllabication?’
      • ‘But Rayner also readily acknowledges that orthography, semantics and syntax are important in reading.’
      • ‘Thurstan Peter's transcript appears to be reasonably accurate as regards spelling and orthography.’
      • ‘This work comprises eighteen books, the first sixteen setting out, after a brief introduction to orthography, the eight Latin word classes (parts of speech) in great detail.’
  • 2

    another term for orthographic projection


Late Middle English: via Old French and Latin from Greek orthographia, from orthos correct + -graphia writing.