A pigmented swelling on the inner side of the hand in some male frogs and toads, assisting grip during copulation.
- ‘Other characters known from hyperoliids include the presence of a dentomentalis muscle, the absence of a nuptial pad, claw-shaped terminal phalanges, vertical pupils, and a cartilaginous sternum.’
- ‘We further examined each male for well-developed nuptial pads, as indicators of readiness for reproduction.’
- ‘They acquired nuptial pads, which helped them to clutch the slippery females, an example perhaps of striving.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.