Definition of nitrate in English:

nitrate

noun

Pronunciation /ˈnaɪtreɪt//ˈnītrāt/
  • 1A salt or ester of nitric acid, containing the anion NO₃⁻ or the group —NO₃

    • ‘It occurs in all kinds of minerals, such as oxides, carbonates, nitrates, sulfates, and phosphates.’
    • ‘Nitric oxide, nitrates, and sulfa-containing drugs are the most frequent precipitants of clinically important methemoglobinemia.’
    • ‘By depositing proteins as monolayers onto gold colloids, the aim will be to develop biosensors for nitrate and nitric oxide with detection capabilities approaching those of natural bacterial cells.’
    • ‘Many nitrates are ionic in nature, but heavy metal nitrates and anhydrous nitrates have covalently bonded nitrate groups.’
    • ‘For instance, the nitrogen cycle in the atmosphere is highly complex with a number of variables affecting the nitrate and nitric acid generation that can end up in the ice.’
    1. 1.1 Sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, or ammonium nitrate, used as fertilizer.
      ‘the fertilizer is usually a basic nitrate’
      • ‘If nitrate leaches below the root zone it eventually contaminates the groundwater.’
      • ‘He is further accused of faxing an inquiry to a chemical company about purchasing urea nitrate - a fertiliser - using a false company name, and of using a false name to obtain a mobile phone number.’
      • ‘Tolerance, and with it loss of antianginal effect, develops with long-term use of any form of nitrate.’
      • ‘The effects of nitrate on various species range from gross toxicity to more subtle changes in physiology and development.’
      • ‘Residual nitrate will remain in the soil from previous years' fertilization as well as from mineralized soil organic matter.’

verb

[WITH OBJECT]
Pronunciation /ˌnaɪˈtreɪt//ˌnīˈtrāt/
  • Treat (a substance) with nitric acid (typically a concentrated mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids), especially so as to introduce nitro groups.

    • ‘When nitrobenzene is nitrated with nitric and sulfuric acids, for example, 93 percent of the substituted groups end up at meta positions.’
    • ‘The first plastic, celluloid, was synthesized from nitrated cotton fiber and camphor in 1869, to make a cheaper substitute for ivory billiard balls.’
    • ‘Biodiesel reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulfates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and particulates.’
    • ‘The interaction between nitrogen oxides and PAHs leads to formation of nitrated PAHs, which are in turn even more potent carcinogens.’
    • ‘Whole lung SOD3 enzymatic activity was unchanged despite the increased protein, and further examination revealed the protein to be strongly nitrated.’
    • ‘Pollutants in diesel exhausts exist as particles or gas phase compounds and the contribution of nitrated, oxygenated and alkylated PAHs to the mutagenic and carcinogenic activity has been recognized.’
    • ‘It is important to note that nitrated proteins are not the same as free radicals.’
    • ‘Additionally, nitrated SP-A may not associate with lipids, lipid components may prevent SP-A nitration, or nitrated SP-A may have been lost during preparation of samples for subsequent assay.’
    • ‘Thus NO metabolized to nitrosothiols and to nitrated amino acids was not detected.’
    • ‘For example, a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids will nitrate benzene.’
    • ‘In diesel exhaust they have very rich oxides of nitrogen, and what that does is it nitrates the PAHs, which makes them more toxic than the ones that have come out of motor vehicle exhausts.’
    • ‘Further complicating this issue are data showing that nitration of SP-A limits its effectiveness, and nitrated proteins are increased markedly in BAL fluid from lung allograft recipients.’
    • ‘Cigarette smoking is associated with lung recruitment and activation of neutrophils that produce increased capabilities for the generation of nitrated protein.’

Origin

Late 18th century: from French (see niter, -ate).

Pronunciation

nitrate

Noun/ˈnaɪtreɪt/

nitrate

Verb/ˌnaɪˈtreɪt/