Definition of Mongol in US English:

Mongol

noun

  • 1A native or inhabitant of Mongolia; a Mongolian.

    • ‘They are mainly scattered in Inner Mongolia, living together with the Mongols and Chinese.’
    • ‘But Mongols, in turn, became increasingly fascinated by their new subjects.’
    • ‘The Chinese supported the Mongols, who invaded Tibet briefly in 1720.’
    • ‘Medieval Baghdad, before its sack by the Mongols, had 36 public libraries when Europe had none.’
    • ‘The Mongols weren't so much tolerant as they were open, being willing to have all sorts of religions in their empire.’
    • ‘Although they speak a Turkic dialect, their ancient ancestors may have been Mongols.’
    • ‘Seljuk power was swept away by another Central Asian dynasty, the Mongols, in 1194.’
    • ‘I note above the importance of textiles in spreading the message that the Mongols had created an empire.’
    • ‘He said that even though he was an undercover agent, he preferred to pal around with the Mongols on his days off because he was fond of them.’
    • ‘As the death toll from the plague mounted, so did tensions between the warlike Mongols and Italians plying their trade on the Black Sea.’
    • ‘They are almost exclusively descendants of the Han, a people believed to be related to the Mongols of Central Asia.’
    • ‘The 1200s witnessed yet another invasion, and control went to the Mongols, who ruled until the 1400s.’
    • ‘The Mongols were actually ahead of most of their opponents in terms of technology, training and leadership.’
    • ‘Indeed, some have thought that the manufacture of tofu was originally an adaptation of cheese-making, learned perhaps from the Mongols.’
    • ‘Francis Bacon recognized the importance of the Mongols as a conduit between East and West.’
    • ‘Tribal rivalries meant that every male Mongol was brought up to be able to fight and hunting expeditions formed the ideal training ground.’
    • ‘The cultural and educational level of the Mongols is higher than average among the national minorities of China.’
    • ‘Tradition has it that moon cakes were first used to carry messages to help the Chinese throw off the Mongols in the 14th century.’
    • ‘The result was a steady migration of Mongols into China during the first 100 years of the Ming dynasty.’
    • ‘According to the census, the total population of Mongols in the United States now stands at about 3,500.’
  • 2The language of the Mongols; Mongolian.

    • ‘They spoke an Altaic language related to Mongol and Turkish, and still constitute a distinct ethnic group in China.’
  • 3offensive A person with Down syndrome.

In the 13th century AD the Mongol empire under Genghis Khan extended across central Asia from Manchuria in the east to European Russia in the west. Under Kublai Khan China was conquered and the Mongol capital moved to Khanbaliq (modern Beijing). The Mongol empire collapsed after a series of defeats culminating in the destruction of the Golden Horde by the Muscovites in 1380

adjective

  • 1Relating to the people of Mongolia or their language.

    • ‘The Muscovite tsars rose to power during Mongol rule not by fighting the Golden Horde, but conspiring against other Russian princes.’
    • ‘In the remnants of the Abbasid empire after the Mongol invasions three new empires were flourishing: Ottoman Turks, Safavid Persians and the Moghuls of India.’
    • ‘A Mongol army from Central Asia laid siege to Baghdad in 1401, calling on the Caliph to surrender and promising that if he did so, the city would be spared.’
    • ‘Because of that success, he was given a wide range of roles to play, from a Mongol leader to Russian hero to a German officer.’
    • ‘Kublai, a grandson of the Mongol leader Genghis Khan, began leading further Mongol advances in the latter years of the 1250s.’
    • ‘Kalmyks, a largely Buddhist ethnic group of Mongol ancestry, are centered in the Kalmykia region, which neighbors Astrakhan.’
    • ‘So a Mongol formation with a Mongol name survived for 700 years, right into the Soviet period.’
    • ‘Genghis Khan, the Mongol leader, died in 1227 but the Mongols resumed their attacks on the Han Sung in 1230.’
    • ‘It was the first defeat of a Western power by an Asian one since the days of the Mongol empire.’
    • ‘Because of Mongol devastation and subsequent Tatar raids, the Eastern Ukrainian lands were relatively uninhabited.’
    • ‘The domination of the new cabinet by Manchus and their Mongol allies seriously damaged the already weakening links between the Chinese and their foreign rulers.’
    • ‘Starting in the sixth century C.E., the area that is now Slovenia was perpetually invaded by the Avars, a Mongol tribe, who were in turn, driven out by the Slavs.’
    • ‘The professor and expert on Kubla Khan and Mongol history argues that Chinese ships during the early Mongol period were the best in the world.’
    • ‘The political power and territorial control of Muscovy expanded greatly under the four-decade reign of Ivan III, who died in 1505 after routing the Mongol armies.’
    • ‘Since then, Kiev has survived Mongol invasions, devastating fires, communist urban planning and the massive destruction of World War II.’
    • ‘Dramatic seasonal variations coupled with movements, conflicts, and alliances of Turkic and Mongol tribes caused the people of Central Asia often to be on the move.’
    • ‘Most Kyrgyz people speak the Kyrgyz language, which is a distinct Turkic language with Mongol influences.’
    • ‘This is thought to have protected the Russian people from the usual ravages of the Mongol occupation.’
    • ‘As is the case in the description of many imperialistic civilizations, the Mongol dynasty, which ruled China in the thirteenth century, must have attracted Marco's interest much more than the Chinese subjects.’
    • ‘The Mongol language belongs to the Altaic family, Mongolian group.’
  • 2offensive Having Down syndrome.

In the 13th century AD the Mongol empire under Genghis Khan extended across central Asia from Manchuria in the east to European Russia in the west. Under Kublai Khan China was conquered and the Mongol capital moved to Khanbaliq (modern Beijing). The Mongol empire collapsed after a series of defeats culminating in the destruction of the Golden Horde by the Muscovites in 1380

Usage

The term mongol was adopted in the late 19th century to refer to a person with Down's syndrome, owing to the similarity of some of the physical symptoms of the disorder with the normal facial characteristics of East Asian people. In modern English this use is now unacceptable and considered offensive. It has been replaced in scientific as well as in most general contexts by the term Down's syndrome (first recorded in the early 1960s)

Origin

Mongolian, perhaps from mong ‘brave’.

Pronunciation

Mongol

/ˈmäNGɡəl//ˈmɑŋɡəl/