One of the mysteries of the English language finally explained.
1The process of printing from a flat surface treated so as to repel the ink except where it is required for printing.
The earliest forms of lithography used greasy ink to form an image on a piece of limestone that was then etched with acid and treated with gum arabic. In a modern press, rollers transfer ink to a thin aluminum plate wrapped around a cylinder. In offset lithography the image is transferred to an intermediate rubber-covered cylinder before being printed
- ‘He also had international exposure as he studied intaglio printmaking lithography and ceramics in Israel.’
- ‘Imprint lithography is a process in which a liquid is dispensed onto a substrate.’
- ‘In the past, we've seen her deriving images from the media, sandblasting text and images onto mirror surfaces and working with photo-serigraphy and lithography.’
- ‘In offset lithography, a printing process commonly used for mass production, the image is taken from the plate by a rubber roller that then transfers the image to the paper.’
- ‘The main types of printmaking are screenprinting, lithography, intaglio and relief.’
- ‘For graphics on paperboard cartons, users request flexography, lithography and hot stamping as well as thermochromatic and food-contact inks.’
- ‘Printing on aluminum foil can be accomplished by any commercial process, including rotogravure, flexography, lithography, and letterpress.’
- ‘In conventional lithography, features that are not anchored are washed away in intermediate development steps.’
- ‘Touch plates or added color embellishments are not uncommon in offset lithography.’
- ‘The actual process of printing by offset lithography is not new, but has been hugely refined in terms of quality and speed.’
- ‘Invented in the late 18th century, stone or plate lithography uses an inked slab of limestone or a specially treated metal plate to transfer an image to paper.’
- ‘In 1888 there were more than 100 publishers in Tokyo alone who used lithography.’
- ‘"The standard quality for most contemporary maps is offset lithography," he said.’
- ‘For an artist to be able to inspire poetry of the eye while employing a multilayered technical process as complicated as lithography, that's sheer genius.’
- ‘Traditional fakes come from a process called offset lithography that produces phony dollars without the ‘raised ink’ feel of genuine bills.’
- ‘Imprint lithography also involves fewer process steps, further reducing the overall cost of the technology.’
- ‘Over 10,000 means that we could switch from letter press to offset lithography, a process which depends on the immiscibility of greasy ink and water on a lithographic plate.’
- ‘The approach uses lithography to etch a pattern onto the platter.’
- ‘The Japanese government established a governmental printing department and lithography was used by the Japanese army.’
- 1.1Electronics An analogous method for making printed circuits.
- ‘For example, polymer nanoimprint lithography could help the electronics industry achieve the resolution requirements needed for next-generation devices.’
- ‘In microelectronics manufacturing, lithography plays the analogous role.’
- ‘Electron beam lithography involves striking a surface with a beam of electrons with patterning capabilities below 100 nm.’
- ‘The timeline puts the screws to extreme ultraviolet lithography, but engineers rise to the challenge.’
- ‘As the semiconductor industry looks to the future, stepper manufacturers are gearing up for extreme ultraviolet lithography.’
Early 19th century: from German Lithographie (see litho-, -graphy).
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