Stunted windblown trees growing near the tree line on mountains.
- ‘Our chill mountaion camp on the chilcotin side of the Coast Mountains lay near the treeline, where clearcut gave way to krummholz, the low, twisty trees of the alpine tundra.’
- ‘Indeed this is observed: there are often slowly growing populations of seedlings, saplings and krummholz trees above the tree line.’
- ‘Wood samples were taken from heavily damaged areas of 22 black spruce krummholz at eight den sites and from four trees located near the dens but with no apparent damage.’
- ‘Most dens or attempted dens are in peat banks beneath krummholz spruce and occasionally in peat banks without any trees, or in inorganic sediments along eroded river banks.’
- ‘The dens were usually dug into embankments within or beneath black spruce that were forming a krummholz of cloned stems.’
Early 20th century: from German, literally ‘crooked wood’.
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.