The determination of a karyotype, e.g. to detect chromosomal abnormalities.
- ‘A chromosome number of four was confirmed by cytological karyotyping.’
- ‘Unfortunately, invasive tests required to obtain tissue for fetal karyotyping (chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis) cause loss of the pregnancy in about 1% of cases.’
- ‘These deletions are also found in bronchogenic carcinomas, thus karyotyping does not differentiate mesothelioma from adenocarcinoma of the lung.’
- ‘Both the cases had no consistent abnormality confirmed by genomic karyotyping.’
- ‘Women's case notes were examined to identify indication for karyotyping, gestation at diagnosis, and outcome of pregnancy.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.