A variable (often denoted by x) whose variation does not depend on that of another.
- ‘As a result, it is difficult to assess the causal impact of the independent variables on the dependent variables.’
- ‘We started with wave form as the dependent variable, and the remaining variables as independent variables.’
- ‘Correlation analysis among the independent variables showed coefficients of less than 0.70.’
- ‘They allow researchers to study the effects of many independent variables on the dependent variable.’
- ‘The decomposition of the effects of independent variables on the dependent variables are presented in Table 2.’
- ‘That is, data that are missing are independent of either the independent variable X or the dependent variable Y.’