Definition of if in English:

if

conjunction

  • 1Introducing a conditional clause.

    on condition that, on the assumption that, as long as, given that, with the provision that, with the proviso that, on the understanding that, with the understanding that, if and only if, contingent on, in the event that, allowing that
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    1. 1.1 On the condition or supposition that; in the event that.
      ‘if you have a complaint, write to the director’
      ‘if you like, I'll put in a word for you’
      • ‘If you have a complaint against a lawyer licensed in another state, contact the lawyer regulatory agency in that state for information on making a complaint.’
      • ‘If you like, I’ll come to Singapore with Sarah.’
    2. 1.2 (with past tense) introducing a hypothetical situation.
      ‘if you had stayed, this would never have happened’
      • ‘If we had finished it before we went on the tour, I think it would have been a much better record.’
      • ‘Perhaps if you had stayed this would have become more apparent.’
    3. 1.3 Whenever; every time.
      ‘if I go out, she gets nasty’
      • ‘If we go out she nearly always ends up in hospital.’
      whenever, every time
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  • 2Despite the possibility that; no matter whether.

    ‘if it takes me seven years, I shall do it’
    • ‘I'm gonna learn to dance if it takes me all night and day.’
  • 3(often used in indirect questions) whether.

    ‘he asked if we would like some coffee’
    ‘see if you can track it down’
    • ‘See if you can track down their owners and ask for a tour.’
    • ‘We were asked if we would like to sit at the bar.’
    whether, whether or not
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  • 4[with modal] Expressing a polite request.

    ‘if I could trouble you for your names?’
    ‘if you wouldn't mind giving him a message?’
    • ‘If I could trouble you to try a little exercise, it will help to elucidate.’
    • ‘If you wouldn't mind giving me your email address, I will have her write to you to answer your questions and offer experienced advice.’
  • 5Expressing an opinion.

    ‘that's an awfully long walk, if you don't mind my saying so’
    ‘if you ask me, he's in love’
    • ‘If you ask me he's a person who doesn't have his priorities straight.’
    • ‘If you don't mind my saying so, this conversation is getting a little strange.’
  • 6Expressing surprise or regret.

    ‘well, if it isn't Frank!’
    ‘if I could just be left alone’
    • ‘Nothing like a friendly reminder at the end of the week that I would be very lucky if I could just be left alone to do my work.’
    • ‘Well, well, well, if it isn't a revision update.’
  • 7With implied reservation.

    1. 7.1 And perhaps not.
      ‘the new leaders have little if any control’
      • ‘Many libraries have little if any control over their patrons.’
    2. 7.2 Used to admit something as being possible but regarded as relatively insignificant.
      ‘if there was any weakness, it was naiveté’
      ‘so what if he did?’
      • ‘So what if he did - it's none of your business anyway.’
      • ‘If there was any weakness, it was in the print-quality of the imagery.’
    3. 7.3 Despite being (used before an adjective or adverb to introduce a contrast)
      ‘she was honest, if a little brutal’
      • ‘Domino is a well-paced action movie, if a little long, with an unusual feeling of surrealism behind the action.’
      although, albeit, but, even though, even if, despite being, in spite of being, yet, whilst
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noun

  • A condition or supposition.

    ‘there are so many ifs and buts in the policy’
    • ‘No ifs or buts about the merits of the Dubs victory, although the margin of it, nine points, scarcely did justice to Waterford's brave effort.’
    • ‘Well, what are the buts, ifs and shoulds of this game in which Skellig Rangers were coasting with 11 minutes left?’
    • ‘What science will hazard instead of conclusions is a series of ifs.’
    • ‘But if - if - and these are giant ifs, put them in italics because it's great uncertainty.’
    • ‘It said it would not cut people's working conditions: ‘no ifs, no buts, no maybes’; and so on.’
    • ‘Good days probably weren't on Lawler's mind as he sat out the dying minutes of the Westmeath game but for him the ifs and buts are always there.’
    • ‘Yet another may allow that torture is justified for another set of ifs.’
    • ‘However there are always ifs and buts, and if anyone supposes I am trying to diminish Malcolm's win by making excuses, they are wrong.’
    • ‘No ifs or buts about it, victory over the hour went to the better side.’
    • ‘It's all about standards and looking back with no ifs or buts.’
    • ‘No ifs, no buts, no questions - they're sending me to Cambridge for the nine-month Masters program.’
    • ‘But frankly, that is more ifs than can be found in a Kipling poem.’
    • ‘And Graham had no ifs, ands or buts about what he thought, and that's what I was hoping Kerry would speak to.’
    • ‘These are big ifs and you don't have to believe in chaos theory to see that the economic consequences of what happened yesterday could be severe.’
    • ‘There were no mights, no ifs, no buts, no doubts, no qualifications.’
    • ‘When a great new revolutionary idea hits the public, there are always doubters, raising niggling ifs and buts.’
    • ‘With ifs and buts about almost everything else in the race Castleruanna is the ideal start to your betting weekend.’
    • ‘That might be too many ifs in the three years left until 2004, when the first major payout of over Rp 50 trillion falls due.’
    • ‘It allows one to put out misleading simplifications as long as the caveats, ifs and buts are buried somewhere in the detailed material.’
    • ‘What the Security Council absolutely should not do is pass some resolution that can then be picked apart by ifs and buts and caveats.’
    uncertainty, doubt, lack of certainty, hesitation, vagueness
    condition, stipulation, provision, proviso, constraint, prerequisite, precondition, requirement, specification, restriction, supposition, modification
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Usage

If and whether are more or less interchangeable in sentences like I'll see if he left an address and I'll see whether he left an address, although whether is generally regarded as more formal and suitable for written use. But, although if and whether are often interchangeable, a distinction worth noting is that if is also used in conditional constructions and whether in expressing an alternative or possibility. Thus, tell me if you're going to be in town next week could be strictly interpreted as ‘you need not reply if you are not going to be in town,’ whereas tell me whether you're going to be in town next week clearly means ‘a reply is desired one way or the other.’

Phrases

  • if and only if

    • Used to introduce a condition that is necessary as well as sufficient.

      ‘witches are real if and only if there are criteria for identifying witches’
      • ‘But this will happen if and only if we educate our labour pool properly and prepare them for a brave new world outside of making beds and cleaning hotel rooms.’
      • ‘Preferences over probability gambles are rational, that is, satisfy the substitution and continuity conditions, if and only if they have the expected utility property.’
      • ‘They will come to our defence if and only if it is in their national interests to do so, regardless of what we've done for them.’
      • ‘The problem is the formal definition of the logical constructs of if and only if, or sufficient and necessary conditions.’
      • ‘Which is good, since I plan to further my studies, if and only if possible.’
      • ‘I realized it's OK to make mistakes if and only if you take them and turn them around to be positive situations.’
      • ‘The venue is not very far from Shanghai downtown - if and only if you have a car.’
      • ‘The ganja addict who suffers from a mental breakdown, which is controlled by medication, if and only if the medication is taken.’
      • ‘Note that it terminates with a random allocation that satisfies quota if and only if there exists an allocation that both satisfies quota and obeys the lower bound.’
      • ‘We showed that in the absence of phase information, genotyping errors can be detected if and only if there is Mendelian inconsistency at one or more of the markers.’
      on condition that, on the assumption that, as long as, given that, with the provision that, with the proviso that, on the understanding that, with the understanding that, if and only if, contingent on, in the event that, allowing that
      View synonyms
  • if and when

    • At a future time (should it arise)

      ‘if and when the film gets the green light, be sure you've read the book first’
      • ‘He said there had been no settlement - and if and when there was it would probably be confidential.’
      • ‘The amount of this cover may need to be enlarged if and when the need arises.’
      • ‘When it was in that state the only function it could conceivably have was to endanger life if and when the occasion arose.’
      • ‘I've been going round the world looking at other things to see what might help me in the future if and when I do come back.’
      • ‘Naturally, this position would mean leaving London, but we'll talk about that more if and when it arises.’
      • ‘Yes, he was the one who was going to decide the question of law if and when it ever arose.’
      • ‘Fix your mortgage rate for a few years, she said, and deal with that problem later if and when it arises.’
      • ‘I'm sure his name will be touted if and when the opportunity arises.’
      • ‘Next time, if and when there is a next time, it'd be a good idea to prepare myself and to have some outings and projects lined up.’
      • ‘Of course, your client may exercise the rights that are available to him if and when the issue arises.’
  • if anything

    • Used to suggest tentatively that something may be the case (often the opposite of something previously implied)

      ‘I haven't made much of this—if anything, I've played it down’
      • ‘There is simply no need for it and if anything such phrases have now become counter-productive.’
      • ‘Mrs Catterson says she should have been alerted as she is the point of contact if anything happens to her mother.’
      • ‘What the play does lack if anything is a sense of balance in that the police's perspective is barely touched on.’
      • ‘We could have some tests to see what, if anything, is wrong, and see if anything can be done to fix it.’
      • ‘Councillors have agreed to meet with officers to see if anything can be done about the objections raised.’
      • ‘The onset of Foot of Mouth disease, if anything, fuelled spending in urban shopping malls.’
      • ‘Indeed, if anything the worship of nature is probably more intense today than at any time this century.’
      • ‘The trend under the previous administration was, if anything, the reverse of this.’
      • ‘My own experience suggests we are if anything already too generous on this point.’
      • ‘School admissions will not be a lottery, if anything the process will be more straightforward.’
  • if i were you

    • Used to accompany a piece of advice.

      ‘I would go to see him if I were you’
      • ‘I'd write to the editor, if I were you, that's what I'd do.’
      • ‘I'd definitely come back tomorrow if I were you.’
      • ‘I wouldn't take that ‘old-school academics’ remark too seriously if I were you.’
      • ‘I'd give Herbert a call if I were you, and work something out.’
      • ‘So if I were you, I'd just leave it alone and keep driving.’
      • ‘I think it counts as ‘fair use’, and I wouldn't worry if I were you.’
      • ‘For the rest, I could offer cautionary advice for a rental, but I'd just pass if I were you.’
      • ‘I wouldn't worry too much about that if I were you.’
      • ‘I'm not well versed in topics such as this, and everything I've said may be based on erroneous assumptions, so I wouldn't give it too much credit if I were you.’
      • ‘So, if I were you, tonight I'd sleep with one eye open.’
  • if not

    • Perhaps even (used to introduce a more extreme term than one first mentioned)

      ‘hundreds if not thousands of germs’
      • ‘Especially as three of the four dismissals have been dubious if not outrageous.’
      • ‘In past years, you had to wait days if not weeks to get a piece of clothing that commemorated a great success.’
      • ‘There's as much, if not more, traffic flowing past our house than during the week.’
      • ‘It looks like there has been a fair bit of work done and no doubt it cost a few hundred quid, if not over a thousand.’
      • ‘Might it be that some kinds of love that came naturally if not easily to Turgenev are no longer available to us?’
      • ‘He is one of the most improved players in the squad, if not the most improved.’
      • ‘Blunter language would have concluded that most, if not all, were a long way out of their depth.’
      • ‘I thought that this had already happened, and will last many months if not years.’
      • ‘The vast number of papers which had all been piled up seemed to have hundreds if not thousands of pages.’
      • ‘From the US it must seem that much European comment is unsympathetic if not carping.’
  • if only

    • 1Even if for no other reason than.

      ‘Willy would have to tell George more, if only to keep him from pestering’
      • ‘It has also prompted me to get Lucky Jim out of the library if only for the shallow reason that Larkin is the dedicatee.’
      • ‘Ash stopped if only to make Salacia end her pleading and put it back in the gold plated box that had safeguarded it.’
      • ‘The rest is depressing history that is worth retelling, if only to avoid repeating.’
      • ‘I'll stick up for him here, if only because he does such a poor job defending himself.’
      • ‘She would help Sarah, if only to stop Lauren from thinking even worse of her.’
      • ‘We are sure, if only out of political expediency and with hindsight, you wish you had not used this language.’
      • ‘This is one of those films that will be talked about for a long time so it should be seen if only for that reason.’
      • ‘Even when we believe that death is a moral good, it is a unique one if only for the reason that no one knows what it is like.’
      • ‘There are times when I wish things were different, if only because the people deserve better.’
      • ‘I do have to say that I consider that last bit unlikely, if only for reasons of practicality.’
    • 2Used to express a wish, especially regretfully.

      ‘if only I had listened to you’
      • ‘It might be love if only they can stop playing nasty practical tricks on each other.’
      • ‘Most salmon anglers have a wish list of places they would love to fish if only they could afford it.’
      • ‘In effect, you say, you want money so that you can stop worrying about what you would like to do if only you had money.’
      • ‘So could Arianna, if only she could hide her smarts and play the game of politics.’
      • ‘Stardom beckons on Sky One, if only you stop trying to entertain the Sun readers.’
      • ‘So do people who would love to stop and shop - if only they could find somewhere to leave the car.’
      • ‘The views out over the river through the glass frontage would have been great, if only I could have seen them.’
      • ‘His people offered to accept him as their King and to lay all the riches of the land at his feet if only he would stop preaching.’
      • ‘Maybe the lawsuit is a bother and there is another way, if only Pooh could stop bumping for a moment and think of it.’
      • ‘Damn, if only I had of been able to think of a reasonable excuse to get him to stay.’
  • if so

    • If that is the case.

      • ‘There must be some truth in it if so many people believe in it strongly enough to do anything for its sake.’
      • ‘They must take hours putting on the faultless make-up and if so, is that built into their working time?’
      • ‘I should like to know if it was tangled and, if so, has someone set it free?’
      • ‘Given that I would be looking to replace it with a similar car, would I be better off keeping it and if so for how long?’
      • ‘Still, you can never tell if it will get coverage and if so, which aspects or what angle will be put on it.’
      • ‘Do people agree with organizing alphabetically, and if so could they explain it in any meaningful way?’
      • ‘We shall report next week if there is sufficient demand and, if so, when the launch meeting will take place.’
      • ‘I'm wondering if I can claim tax relief on rent paid to a private landlord and if so how I go about doing this?’
      • ‘The question invited him to state whether he stood by his statement, and if so, why.’
      • ‘It should state whether meals are to be provided and, if so, on what basis.’

Origin

Old English gif, of Germanic origin; related to Dutch of and German ob.

Pronunciation:

if

/if/

Definition of IF in English:

IF

  • Intermediate frequency.

Pronunciation:

IF

/if/