A parasite whose host is itself a parasite.
- ‘Another small family, Elasmidae, also consists of both primary and hyperparasites.’
- ‘Hyperparasite attack may reduce the effectiveness of L. testaceipes if the hyperparasite is abundant.’
- ‘Others, such as the ichneumonid subfamily Mesochorinae, are hyperparasites and attack other parasitoids.’
- ‘Some may be hyperparasites and could reduce the benefits of host-specific parasites of the CLM.’
- ‘Results of laboratory tests indicated that T. atroviride is an effective hyperparasite of S. sclerotiorum.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.