A Polish or Cossack military commander.→ ataman
- ‘Why would the Diet forbid Jan Kazimierz to provide military aid to Vyhovs'kyi and what is meant by the statement that the Cossack hetman was ‘an elected king’?’
- ‘Two hundred years ago King Karl XII of Sweden fought together with the Cossack hetman Ivan Mazepa for the independence of Ukraine from Russia.’
- ‘But the Swedes and Cossacks lost, and Peter destroyed the hetman's capital and the hetmanate itself.’
- ‘They were democratic, directly electing their leaders or hetmen.’
- ‘In 1648, led by the kozak hetman (military leader) Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Ukrainians rose against Poland, forming an independent state.’
Polish, probably from German Hauptmann captain.