Denoting true porcelain made of fusible and infusible materials (usually kaolin and china stone) fired at a high temperature. Developed in early medieval China, it was not made in Europe until the early 18th century.
- ‘In 1787 the count hired Pierre Cloostermans, a Flemish ceramic painter living in Paris, to continue making creamware and to develop a formula for hard-paste porcelain.’
- ‘Augustus ‘The Strong,’ King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, was a devoted collector of ceramics, particularly of the delicate Asian white, hard-paste porcelain known to Europeans as ‘White Gold.’’
- ‘The following year Augustus established the Meissen porcelain manufactory, which dominated the production of hard-paste porcelain in Europe for many years.’
- ‘His strength lay in his ability to draw, and evidently he had some difficulty at first with the hard-paste medium, which he soon mastered.’
- ‘The export of hard-paste porcelain until the middle of the eighteenth century was a virtual Chinese monopoly, although Japan also produced a certain amount of porcelain.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.