Definition of geology in English:



  • 1The science that deals with the earth's physical structure and substance, its history, and the processes that act on it.

    • ‘Courses related to astrobiology are offered in the departments of geology, biology, physics, and electrical engineering.’
    • ‘It's taken the father-of-three 23 years to complete a BSc in geology and earth sciences from the Open University.’
    • ‘Indeed, many physicists did not even believe that geology and biology were sciences at all.’
    • ‘My first love of school science was geology, and that was definitely not ladylike in the '60s.’
    • ‘These were the scientists who were to devote their labours to the study of natural history, geology, astronomy and even the nascent discipline of anthropology.’
    • ‘Finding oil and gas is a process that combines physics and geology with a lot of engineering technology.’
    • ‘They have undergraduate or graduate degrees in subjects including anthropology, geology, marine science and maritime history.’
    • ‘The 143,670-square-foot building will house facilities for teaching biology, chemistry, geology, physics and other sciences.’
    • ‘Not only was very little known about the geological features of the earth, but at that time there were no university degrees in geology and no professional geologists.’
    • ‘The country has produced important work in biology, medicine, geology, mathematics, physics, genetics, psychology, and anthropology.’
    • ‘From the physical sciences, Quaternary geology developed as a discipline that was initially almost entirely divorced from considerations of human behavior.’
    • ‘Physical sciences, particularly earth sciences such as geology and hydrology, are popular subjects for study and research in Oman's university.’
    • ‘A fundamental tenet of the science of geology is the Principle of Uniformitarianism, which states that the present is a key to the past.’
    • ‘Structural geology is the branch of geology that deals with the description and interpretation of the structure of rocks.’
    • ‘McPhee is possibly best known for his explorations in earth history and geology which earned him a Pulitzer Prize in 1999 for his book.’
    • ‘Stephen Jay Gould teaches biology, geology, and the history of science at Harvard University.’
    • ‘The new sciences - uniformitarian geology, nebular astronomy, and evolutionary biology - were rooted in a temporal methodology, as was evolutionary social science.’
    • ‘Macedonia has research institutes dealing with geology, natural history, cotton, animal breeding, tobacco, animal husbandry, and water development.’
    • ‘In the natural sciences, biology and geology should be emphasized.’
    • ‘John, who left school at 16, learned in early March that he would receive his BSc degree in geology and earth sciences just a month before 25-year-old Alyson's own graduation.’
    • ‘Portland cement manufacturing incorporates many disciplines, from engineering to chemistry to geology to computer science.’
    1. 1.1The geological features of an area.
      ‘the geology of the Outer Hebrides’
      • ‘Springs, sinkholes, and caves are just a few examples of the types of karst features commonly found in the limestone and dolomite geology of this region.’
      • ‘The details of regional geology together with extensional folds in the Alasehir graben are enough to refute a short lived contractional tectonics in late Miocene to Pliocene in western Turkey.’
      • ‘But the complex geology overlying the mountain aquifers continues to challenge researchers.’
      • ‘Natural features, such as soils, climate, and geology, are an important influence on water quality in watersheds.’
      • ‘There was little interest in peatland geology during this early period outside of the Geological Survey of Canada.’
      • ‘The local geology has always affected the way in which urban centres develop.’
      • ‘The geology of this region of the Pikes Peak Batholith is quite complex.’
      • ‘For this reason, we asked local creationist geologists, very familiar with the geology of the area, to show us any apparent field evidence for ancient soils.’
      • ‘British Geological Survey maps indicate that the geology of the area is generally glacial till (boulder clay) with underlying coal measures.’
      • ‘He spent his final years in an ambitious attempt to produce a comprehensive summary of the geology of Australia, publishing a detailed geological map of the continent in 1932.’
      • ‘This volume makes useful contributions to a variety of topics dealing with the Paleogene geology of the North Atlantic region.’
      • ‘I have tried to cover the basic geology and mineralogy of the district and hit a few of the district's highlights.’
      • ‘The geology of the Karaburun Peninsula suggests that the nappes may have been thrust from north of the Mesozoic Karaburun carbonate platform.’
      • ‘Their conclusions with regard to the origin of the vanadium enrichment and to the geology of the Springfield coal bed conflict with the established geology of the coal.’
      • ‘The region's peculiar geology of soft limestone, called karst, has been especially troublesome.’
      • ‘Granitic magmatism at convergent margins is intrinsic to the growth of continents and is an integral part of Andean geology.’
      • ‘Currently unresolved issues in Scottish geology include problems of correlation across the Moine Thrust Zone.’
      • ‘Some of this stems from a poor understanding of wetland geology and what wetland landforms are.’
      • ‘The geology of New Zealand is divided into at least eight terranes of regional extent and a number of smaller tectonic slices.’
      • ‘He claims that south-facing peaks in the Derbyshire Peak District, which has the same geology as Greece, will become warm enough to support grape growth within 50 years.’
    2. 1.2The geological features of a planetary body.
      ‘the geology of the surface of Mars’
      • ‘Being able to study Mars in close-up detail would also help us, by comparing it to our own world, to understand better the geology and environment of our home planet.’
      • ‘Whatever happens, we will learn lots about the geology of the Red Planet.’
      • ‘Schmitt provided Apollo flight crews with detailed instructions in lunar navigation, geology, and feature recognition while training for his Moon mission.’
      • ‘The Magellan mapped 98 percent of Venus' surface, thus revolutionizing our understanding of the planet, particularly its geology.’
      • ‘They are really looking for water and trying to understand the history of the planet and its geology, just to see whether the conjectures that it was once warm and wet were true.’
      • ‘These use remote sensing and instruments that can scratch away surfaces to analyse the geology of the Red Planet.’
      • ‘The seven science instruments on the piano-sized probe would shed light on the bodies' surface properties, geology, interior makeup and atmospheres.’
      • ‘In 2009 another Rover, possibly two, will go to Mars and through daily analysis of downlinks Farmer and his team will again analyse the planet's geology, this time in greater detail.’
      • ‘The geology of those planets is totally different from ours.’
      • ‘During a five-month study the piano-size probe will map and measure Pluto's geology and landform origins, as well as its surface compositions and temperatures.’
      • ‘Crism also will map the geology, composition, and stratigraphy of various Martian surface features.’
      • ‘Paper-based fieldwork methods have made fundamental contributions to our current state of knowledge of the Earth's surface and subsurface geology.’
      • ‘The two rovers will land on opposite sides of the planet and investigate the geology of regions where liquid water might once have been present.’


Late 18th century: from modern Latin geologia, from Greek gē earth + -logia (see -logy).