Main definitions of gall in US English:

: gall1gall2gall3

gall1

noun

  • 1Bold and impudent behavior.

    ‘the bank had the gall to demand a fee’
    • ‘I looked furiously from her to the one who'd had enough gall to do this.’
    • ‘I have been in politics a while - not long enough, obviously - but I have been in politics a while and I have seen some examples of impertinence, cheek, and gall, but that last speech beats them all.’
    • ‘What a hat full of horsefeathers; what a hoary hunk of chutzpah; what a grotesque, galloping glob of gall this guy is!’
    • ‘Never once did she remind him that she was his prized assassin, the only female with enough gall to commit repetitive and senseless acts of violence.’
    • ‘You really have a lot of gall, Mackenzie, to come right up and say all these things.’
    • ‘I wasn't there fault that they did realize that things had changed not that it didn't keep her from dusting them for sheer gall of trying to attack her.’
    • ‘‘If nothing else you have gall,’ he nodded and she gave a Cheshire smile to the offhanded compliment as he lit his cigar, the smell of it immediately coming to her attention.’
    • ‘In hockey terms, spine is guts, grit, gumption and gall.’
    • ‘‘You always have such gall,’ she stated trying to avoid looking at his face.’
    • ‘And then, somebody had the unmitigated gall to shop those tapes around to media outlets in order to sell them to the highest bidder.’
    • ‘The defendant then has the unmitigated gall to blame his recent bankruptcy on these court proceedings.’
    • ‘I think we should have an awed silence in honour of the sheer unbelievable gall of that one.’
    • ‘But, if his responses to past adversity are an accurate guide, long-term suffering will be felt only by those with gall enough to challenge the depth of his current supremacy.’
    • ‘I mustered up enough gall to snatch the rose from his spinning fingers, toss it away, and interlace my fingers with his own.’
    • ‘What the French lack in reason they make up for in sheer gall.’
    • ‘You almost have to admire the sheer gall of it all.’
    • ‘To legislate for artistic imagination is an intellectual conceit that for sheer gall takes the breath away.’
    • ‘The piece is written with an almost amused incredulity at the sheer gall of the scheme.’
    • ‘This boy obviously had a lot of gall, threatening and challenging him like this.’
    • ‘I can't believe we have such ungrateful whiners in this place that have the hide and gall to call themselves Aussies.’
    impudence, insolence, impertinence, cheek, cheekiness, nerve, audacity, brazenness, effrontery, temerity, presumption, presumptuousness, brashness, shamelessness, pertness, boldness
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  • 2The contents of the gallbladder; bile (proverbial for its bitterness).

    • ‘It is said to be the fish with whose gall Tobit recovered his sight, although it seems improbable that a fish of this species should have leapt out of the River Tigris.’
    • ‘And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha, that is to say, a place of a skull, They gave Him Vinegar to drink mingled with gall: and when He had tasted thereof, He would not drink.’
    • ‘There they offered Jesus wine to drink, mixed with gall; but after tasting it, he refused to drink it.’
    • ‘The result of Raychel's beating is directly carried over to the Roman soldier forcing Jesus to drink gall.’
    • ‘In central Ontario, eight species of parasitoids and a Periclistus inquiline are associated with this gall.’
    • ‘They gave Him sour wine mingled with gall to drink.’
    • ‘Raphael helped him to catch a fish, the heart, liver and gall of which were used by Tobias to drive away a demon and cure his father's blindness.’
    acrimony, resentment, rancour, sourness, acerbity, asperity
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    1. 2.1 An animal's gallbladder.
      • ‘Whoever killed Russell's bears was not out poaching gall, Pavel believed.’
      • ‘Dried and sold as an aphrodisiac and cure-all in Asia, Russia, and North America, bear gall has long been treasure for poachers.’
      • ‘They gave me also gall for my meat; and in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.’
    2. 2.2 Used to refer to something bitter or cruel.
      ‘accept life's gall without blaming somebody else’
      • ‘It's always a bit crushing when you lose something that was yours but there is a special bitter gall when that thing is logging your progress in a 10,000 a day stepathon.’
      • ‘How quickly I fall back to my evil ways when I force You to drink the bitter gall of mankind's sin - instead of refreshing water that will temporarily soothe Your thirsty and battered body.’

Origin

Old English gealla (denoting bile), of Germanic origin; related to Dutch gal, German Galle ‘gall’, from an Indo-European root shared by Greek kholē and Latin fel ‘bile’.

Pronunciation

gall

/ɡɔl//ɡôl/

Main definitions of gall in US English:

: gall1gall2gall3

gall2

noun

  • 1Annoyance; irritation.

    ‘he was filled with gall at the suspected ambitions of his old enemies’
    • ‘Learning that his quarry had given him a slip a glowering devil seemed to rage within the king's heart, raising dark and savage gall.’
    irritation, irritant, annoyance, vexation, pest, nuisance, provocation, bother, torment, plague, source of vexation, source of irritation, source of annoyance, thorn in one's flesh, thorn in one's side
    View synonyms
  • 2(especially of a horse) a sore on the skin made by chafing.

    sore, ulcer, ulceration, canker
    View synonyms

verb

[with object]
  • 1Make (someone) feel annoyed.

    ‘he knew he was losing, and it galled him’
    • ‘The article implies that there is no active company, which is an insult to the hard work of my contracted roster of singers, and that is what really galls me the most.’
    • ‘What really galls me is that services for elderly people are woeful - disgraceful in fact - and these are people who have paid taxes all their lives.’
    • ‘It galls me that I'm able to say things like ‘Fifteen years ago, I won a trip to Washington DC’ and I'm able to remember it as clearly as yesterday, even though it was almost half-my-life ago.’
    • ‘And even though it will gall us as a community to accept the killers of a Garda strutting around as free as birds after being found guilty by the courts just a few years ago, we will have to bite our tongues and keep going.’
    • ‘That's what galls me more than anything: the continual condemnation of young people to means-testing, division and poor nutrition.’
    • ‘And it just galls me that the Republicans are always talking about two things, Christianity and family values.’
    • ‘What galls him most, Boris says, is that he would gladly have worked off his fines through community service, but the city denied him this option.’
    • ‘What also galls me is that these women are claiming not only sex, but femininity itself as a uniformly passive, gentle, loving, pacifist attribute.’
    • ‘It galls me that some people are trying to take full credit for the new hospital now.’
    • ‘What really galls me is that the French have their Foreign Legion and don't give a damn.’
    • ‘But what galls me is that it promised all these sickening smells would be a thing of the past when the incinerator was built.’
    • ‘Given the phrasing, it's difficult not to suspect that he was galled to discover that he was no more popular than a writer who, at that stage in her career, had published only a small volume of poems and a children's book.’
    • ‘London is a wonderful city and it galls me that I don't make the most of it.’
    • ‘But I'm most galled by the inaccuracy of how the study's results are misleadingly characterized.’
    • ‘It galled him that soldiers had driven so hard to penetrate the city, only to have a buffoon in a beret belittle them to the world.’
    • ‘What galls me more, I guess, than American fast food culture and all that this entails is the bullying, we're right you're wrong and we'll fight you for it attitude.’
    • ‘And it's principle, not money, that's galling him.’
    • ‘But what really galls me is when the marketers target children.’
    • ‘What is galling most people about the situation is that it was instigated by our own Minister who seems to be blaming everyone from his own Fisheries Officers, Europe and fishermen's so called lack of flexibility.’
    • ‘Yes indeed, and clearly that's galling the people who are holding those three Italian hostages, originally four.’
    irritate, annoy, vex, make angry, make cross, anger, exasperate, irk, pique, put out, displease, get someone's back up, put someone's back up, antagonize, get on someone's nerves, rub up the wrong way, ruffle, ruffle someone's feathers, make someone's hackles rise, raise someone's hackles
    View synonyms
  • 2Make sore by rubbing.

    ‘the straps galled their shoulders’
    chafe, abrade, rub, rub against, rub painfully, rub raw, scrape, graze, skin, scratch, rasp, bark, fret
    View synonyms

Origin

Old English gealle ‘sore on a horse’, perhaps related to gall; superseded in Middle English by forms from Middle Low German or Middle Dutch.

Pronunciation

gall

/ɡɔl//ɡôl/

Main definitions of gall in US English:

: gall1gall2gall3

gall3

noun

  • 1An abnormal growth formed on plants and trees, especially oaks, in response to the presence of insect larvae, mites, or fungi.

    • ‘When the larvae hatch, they feed inside the shoots, causing the plant to produce galls about the size of a large marble.’
    • ‘Damage to leaves caused by insects appears widespread and includes traces of feeding, leaf mines and galls.’
    • ‘Insect galls are likely to be resource sinks, drawing nutrients from other tissues of the host plant in addition to its own leaf.’
    • ‘None of the Fort Severn galls issued inhabitants; however, the presence of galls confirms that the species can survive here.’
    • ‘But for aphids living inside plant galls, the risk of getting stuck or even drowning in their own sticky waste is quite real.’
    • ‘Herbivorous attack was estimated by the number of attacked leaves and percentage of leaf area damaged, while gall-forming insect attacks were estimated from the number of leaves with galls and number of galls per individual plant.’
    • ‘In early spring, these aphids form pouch-shaped galls on the hybrids' leaves; living and breeding within the galls, the insects feed on the trees' nutritious sap stream.’
    • ‘She held out her gnarled hands, as twisted and brown as the galls of a walnut tree.’
    • ‘At one time it was believed that the bacterium lived in the soil like its relative that causes galls on other plants.’
    • ‘The flies' larvae build galls within the flower buds and steal some of the plant's energy, leading to a reduction in the number of seeds that develop.’
    • ‘This orange gelatinous material, which contains thousands of spores, oozes out of chocolate-colored galls present on affected branches.’
    • ‘In the spring I saw some old blackened pods and thought they were insect galls.’
    • ‘The damage includes feeding traces, predominantly continuous marginal feeding traces, leaf mines including linear and possible blotch varieties and probable leaf galls.’
    • ‘The midge is an ephemeral 2-3 mm insect whose larva induces a gall on young unfurled S. viminalis leaves.’
    • ‘Among the garden plants with interesting diseases seen recently were clematis affected by a microscopic rust fungus which caused huge galls on the stem, and a disfiguring pathogenic algae on Hardenburgia, an ornamental climber.’
    • ‘Leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, twigs, and insect galls can also be employed as medicine.’
    • ‘They will also eat small fruits, berries, and plant galls.’
    • ‘The female gall fly lays her eggs in young buds, causing the plant to form galls.’
    • ‘About twenty species in the deserts of Australia occupy galls, plant tissues that have been modified by feeding insects to form a hollow cavity.’
    • ‘Foliar galls probably caused by mites also have been recognized on one gymnosperm species in the formation.’
    1. 1.1as modifier Denoting insects or mites that produce galls.
      ‘gall flies’
      • ‘Pests particularly destructive to Norway spruce include gall aphids, white pine weevil, spider mites, Cytospora canker and Rhizosphaera needlecast.’
      • ‘I chose gall insects, made drawings and sent in specimens with my essay.’
      • ‘The physically anchored genetic map is the first of any gall midge species.’
      • ‘In Montana, gall flies released to limit knapweed turn out to provide a food bonanza for white-footed mice.’
      • ‘More recently, the gall midge has moved into the Houston area and become a cause of bud drop.’
      • ‘His team was the first to single out the insect, nicknamed the ‘melaleuca bud gall fly’ as a potential natural control of the aggressive melaleuca.’
      • ‘If so, gall flies attacking S. canadensis may be under selection for earlier emergence.’
      • ‘To combat it, agricultural agencies began to introduce gall flies of the genus Urophoro in the 1970s.’
      • ‘The Cape ivy gall fly, Parafreutreta regalis, lays eggs in the tips of stems, where vines and leaves would normally develop.’
      • ‘However, this parasitoid was completely absent from all sampled gall beetle populations.’
      • ‘The stem gall nematode, Anguina pacificae, is presently the most devastating pest of Poa annua putting greens in California.’
      • ‘In this paper, we report on how the formation of galls by the goldenrod gall fly has promoted a host shift and differentiation of the beetle Mordellistena convicta.’
      • ‘We will refer to these host-associated gall fly populations as ‘altissima’ flies and ‘gigantea’ flies.’
      • ‘For example, some plant clones attract more gall insects while at the same time some clones produce bigger galls, reducing the accessibility of larvae inside to natural enemies.’
      • ‘Biological control agent number three is the melaleuca bud gall fly, Fergusonina turneri, which may prove effective in attacking melaleuca flower and leaf buds but in an entirely different way.’

Origin

Middle English: via Old French from Latin galla.

Pronunciation

gall

/ɡɔl//ɡôl/