1The part of a hollow organ (such as the uterus or the gallbladder) that is farthest from the opening.
- ‘When you place your head lower than your hips, gravity encourages the fetus to move toward the fundus of the uterus, flex his or her chin, and turn under.’
- ‘The distribution of the various epithelial changes did not follow any pattern with regard to occurrence in the neck, body, or fundus of the gallbladder.’
- ‘The textbook is a comprehensive and very practical approach to all aspects of fundus diseases including retina, vitreous, choroid, tumors of the fundus and optic nerve disease.’
- 1.1 The upper part of the stomach, which forms a bulge higher than the opening of the esophagus (farthest from the pylorus)
- ‘The fundus of the stomach protrudes through the defect into the thoracic cavity.’
- ‘They inserted a plastic tube through the fundus of the stomach into the mid-esophagus to enable esophageal distension with saline, generating elevated esophageal pressures to simulate a clinical gastric regurgitation situation.’
- ‘Distension of the gastric antrum and fundus causes vagal stimulation, which results in the release of small amounts of pancreatic juice high in enzyme content.’
- ‘The surgeon wraps the fundus of the stomach to create an external esophageal sphincter so that food or fluid entering the stomach is unable to exit via the esophagus.’
- ‘In patients with significant reflux disease, certain procedures should be avoided: The fundus of the stomach has a thin wall and a great propensity to stretch, so this portion of the stomach should not be used in the formation of a pouch.’
- ‘The stomach consists of the fundus, body, and antrum.’
- 1.2 The part of the eyeball opposite the pupil.
- ‘It is conceivable that an increase in blood flow in the central retinal artery may improve the function of the eye, including transmission in the optic nerve, by improving circulation in the fundus of the eye around the retina.’
- ‘Mild atherosclerotic changes of the retinal arterioles were seen in the right fundus, which was otherwise unremarkable.’
- ‘This time she did remain still, and I saw that she had a pearly white optic disc in her fundus.’
- ‘The pupils should be dilated and the fundus examined in a darkened room.’
- ‘Sensory retinal degeneration, predominantly in the central tapetal fundus, was found in all dogs, and severity of changes varied with age of the dog.’
Mid 18th century: from Latin, literally ‘bottom’.
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.